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d.c Motor Starter

d.c Motor Starter

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Published by karthime08

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Published by: karthime08 on Sep 24, 2010
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06/04/2013

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TYPES OF D.C MOTOR STARTER
1.
 
Two point starter2.
 
Three point starter3.
 
Four point starterThe starting operation of a d.c. motor consists in the insertion of external resistance intothe armature circuit to limit the starting current taken by the motor and the removal of thisresistance in steps as the motor accelerates.When the motor attains the normal speed, this resistance is totally cut out of the armature circuit.It is very important and desirable to provide the starter with protective devices to enable thestarter arm to return to OFF position.(i) when the supply fails, thus preventing the armature being directly across the mains when thisvoltage is restored. For this purpose, we use no-volt release coil.(ii) when the motor becomes overloaded or develops a fault causing the motor to take anexcessive current. For this purpose, we use overload release coil.
Operation of d.c motor starter
a.
 
To start with, the d.c. supply is switched on with handle in the OFF position.b.
 
The handle is now moved clockwise to the first stud. As soon as it comes incontact with the first stud, the shunt field winding is directly connected across thesupply, while the whole starting resistance is inserted in series with the armaturecircuit.c.
 
As the handle is gradually moved over to the final stud, the starting resistance iscut out of the armature circuit in steps. The handle is now held magnetically bythe no-volt release coil which is energized by shunt field current.d.
 
If the supply voltage is suddenly interrupted or if the field excitation isaccidentally cut, the no-volt release coil is demagnetized and the handle goes back to the OFF position under the pull of the spring. If no-volt release coil were notused, then in case of failure of supply, the handle would remain on the final stud.If then supply is restored, the motor will be directly connected across the supply,resulting in an excessive armature current.e.
 
If the motor is over-loaded (or a fault occurs), it will draw excessive current fromthe supply. This current will increase the ampere-turns of the over-load releasecoil and pull the armature C, thus short-circuiting the novolt release coil. The no-volt coil is demagnetized and the handle is pulled to the OFF position by thespring. Thus, the motor is automatically disconnected from the supply.
 
Three point starter
Limitation:1.
 
In a three-point starter, the no-volt release coil is connected in series with the2.
 
Shunt field circuit so that it carries the shunt field current.3.
 
While exercising speed control through field regulator, the field current may beweakened to such an extent that the no-volt release coil may not be able to keepthe starter arm in the ON position.4.
 
This may disconnect the motor from the supply when it is not desired. Thisdrawback is overcome in the four point starter.
Three point starter
 
 
Four point starter
(i)
 
In a four-point starter, the no-volt release coil is connected directly across thesupply line through a protective resistance R.(ii)
 
Now the no-volt release coil circuit is independent of the shunt field circuit.Therefore, proper speed control can be exercised without affecting the operationof novolt release coil(iii)Note that the only difference between a three-point starter and a four-point starteris the method in which no-volt release coil is connected. However, the working of the two starters is the same.(iv)
 
It may be noted that the three point starter also provides protection against anopen field Circuit. This protection is not provided by the four-point starter.
Two point starter
1.
 
This starter is only for D.C. series motor only. The basic construction of two point starteris similar to that of three point starter except the fact that it has only two terminalsnamely line (L) and field (F).2.
 
The F terminal is one end of the series combination of field and the armature winding.The action of the starter is similar to that of three phase starter.3.
 
The main problem in case of d.c. series motor is its over speeding action when the load isless.

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Vichnu Rebel On Rules added this note
nice info.but instead of pointing the limitations of the starters you could have explained the working.
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