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Hierarchy of Effects Briefing Paper

Hierarchy of Effects Briefing Paper

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Published by Dana VanDen Heuvel

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Published by: Dana VanDen Heuvel on Sep 24, 2010
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The MarkengSavant Group
The Hierarchy o Efects
Dana VanDen Heuvel, Principal
1025 Emilie StreetGreen Bay, WI 54301888.989.7771dana@marketingsavant.comwww.marketingsavant.com
Briefing Paper
The MarketingSavant Group
 
The Hierachy of Effects
 – 
How Effective Communication Works
The MarketingSavant™ Group
| 888.989.7771 | www.marketingsavant.com
   P   a   g   e    1 
1. Review of Classical Models
 Models of effects help marketers to set marketing goals, structure objectives andanalyze message impact as a series of steps called a
Hierarchy of Effects
. One classicapproach, the
AIDA
model, describes the impact on consumers as beginning with
attention
or
awareness
, then moving to
interest
, then
desire
, and finally
action
:
Awareness
Interest
Desire
ActionAttention
Interest
Desire
Action
In 1961, and additional variation to the models of effects was added called the
DAGMAR
model (
Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results
). TheDAGMAR model begins with awareness, moves to comprehension, then conviction, andends with action. This is also known as the
Think-Feel-Do
model. An adaptation of theDAGMAR model is expressed graphically on the next page. For the purpose of marketing planning, it is this model in Figure 1 that we use to map out marketing goalsand activities in a marketing strategyThe
Think-Feel-Do
model of message effects presumes that consumers approach apurchase situation using a sequence of responses. In other words, we think aboutsomething, then we form an opinion or attitude about it (feel), and finally we takeaction and try it or buy it (do}. This model identifies three categories of effects calledcognition (mental or rational), affection (emotional), and behavior (decision or action).
Executive Summary 
Many marketers know the Hierarchy of Effects, but they usually called it by a different namesuch as AIDA, the sales funnel, the demand funnel, the purchase process or something similar.Whatever name it goes by, the end result is the same. The Hierarchy of effects is the naturalprocess of marketing where you begin with the total, unaware potential market for yourbrand, progress through a series of stages, including awareness, preference and purchase andideally end up in a state of loyalty. However, most marketers have never mapped concretemarketing goals to the identified stages of the hierarchy and thus do not understand nor havethey harnesses its true power. This briefing paper examines the strategic value and practicaluses for a well-defined Hierarchy of Effects for your organization and target markets.
 
The Hierachy of Effects
 – 
How Effective Communication Works
The MarketingSavant™ Group
| 888.989.7771 | www.marketingsavant.com
   P   a   g   e    2 
The History of The Hierarchy of Effects
The origins of the Hierarchy of effects can be traced all the wayback to
1898
and the hierarchy
screator, a salesman named
StElmo Lewis
. Lewis believed thatrather than simply closing a sale,an effective salesperson actuallyguided a buyer through a seriesof stages. He claimed that aproper salesman must ensure
Attention
, maintain
Interest
,create
Desire
and finally spurthe customer to
Action
 (purchase).In
1910
, the
Hierarchy of Effects
 showed up for the first time inprint mentioning the hierarchy
suse for advertising gain. Itshowed up as an editorial in
Printer 
’ 
s Ink 
. The model wasthen expressed as
Attention
,
Interest
,
Conviction
, and
Action
.The article declared that anycomplete advertisementcampaign must follow thismodel of persuasion.In
1961
Robert Lavidge and GarySteiner published their seminalpaper on the Hierarchy of Effects in the
 Journal of Marketing
. In addition tosupporting the AIDA model, theynoted that consumers appearedto progress through
cognitive
 (thinking), then
affective
 (feeling) and finally
conative
 (intention/doing) stages. Weknow this as the modern
Think-Do-Feel
model discussed in thispaper.
The
Think-Feel-Do
model is also called the
high-involvement
model because it depicts aseries of standard responses typically found in consumers who are active participants inthe process of gathering information and making a decision; they are active thinkers.This standard hierarchy is likely to be found with product categories and situationswhere there is a need for information, such as high-priced or major purchases, or wherethere is a lot of product differentiation, as in industrial products and consumer durables.This type of communication usually provides many product details and is veryinformative.Another variation of the high-involvement model is the
Feel-Think-Do
model. In thismodel, consumers begin in the affective (feeling) stage where there
s an emotionalattachment to the purchase or decision in question. There is high interest in theproduct, but the interest is less rational and utilitarian and based more on gut reactionor personal significance. Jewelry, cosmetics and antiques would fit in this model.In contrast, the
low-involvement
model changes the order of responses to
Think-Do-Feel
, with the idea that consumers first learn about a product, then try it, and finallyform an opinion. This situation occurs when there is little initial interest in the productor when there is minimal difference between the products, requiring little decisionmaking. It also describes impulse purchasing.A fourth variation is the
Do-Feel-Think
model, which explains how people try somethingand learn from the experience. It is called a rationalization model because consumerstypically select from several alternatives and then rationalize their decision bydeveloping strong positive feelings about the product. This happens in productcategories such as candy, grocery items and other low price or low involvement saleitems or consumables.

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