Although the League of Nations did enjoy some remarkable political success in the 1920s,the increasing economic strife and militant nationalism which characterized the 1930s lednot only to the breakup of cooperation between States but also to several conflicts whichcould not be easily resolved.Powerful States such as Germany, Italy, and Japan left the organization, and by the time theSecond World War broke out in 1939, many had abandoned the League of Nations and itsunfulfilled promise of collective security, and had instead returned to the traditional systemof defensive alliances and power blocs.However, the efforts of the League of Nations were not completely in vain; during theintervening war years, the Allies established plans to create a new organization, the UnitedNations. Signed on 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, the Charter of the United Nations cameinto force on 24 October 1945.
4.2 The United Nations:
The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitateco-operation in international law, international security, economic development, socialprogress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the UnitedNations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.The UN was founded after the end of World War II by the victorious Allied Powers in thehope that it would act to intervene in conflicts between nations and thereby avoid war. Theorganization's structure still reflects in some ways the circumstances of its founding. Thefive permanent members of the UN Security Council, each of which has veto power on anyUN resolution, are the main victors of World War II or their successor states: People'sRepublic of China (which replaced the Republic of China), the French Republic, the RussianFederation (which replaced the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), the United Kingdom,and the United States of America.As of 2007, there are 192 United Nations member states, encompassing almost everyrecognized independent state. From its headquarters in New York City, the UN and itsspecialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetingsheld throughout each year. The organization is divided into administrative bodies, including