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Design of Passive Cooling System for a Building in Composite Climatic Conditions in India

Design of Passive Cooling System for a Building in Composite Climatic Conditions in India

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Published by arun.joswey
An innovative and detailed discussion on Solar powered Air Conditioning


Please Refer http://www.google.com/notebook/public/05609114698798578443/BDR24IgoQ3N7G1agj
An innovative and detailed discussion on Solar powered Air Conditioning


Please Refer http://www.google.com/notebook/public/05609114698798578443/BDR24IgoQ3N7G1agj

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Published by: arun.joswey on Jul 03, 2008
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02/02/2013

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 110
 Int. J. Sustainable Design, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2008
Copyright © 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Design of passive cooling system for a buildingin composite climatic conditions in India
Jyotirmay Mathur*
Mechanical Engineering Department,Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, IndiaE-mail: jyotirmay.mathur@gmail.com
*
Corresponding author 
Rajeev Kathpalia
Vastu Shilpa Consultants,Sangath, Thaltej Road, Ahmedabad, IndiaE-mail: sangath@icenet.co.in
Abstract:
A combined solar chimney – wind tower concept has beendeveloped for a typical urban institution building in Delhi. Due to sitelimitations, the concept of solar chimney based ventilation has been introducedthrough roof mounted thermo-siphon air panels of 70 m
2
absorber area. A windtower provided on the suction side of fresh air has potential for coolingincoming air by 5
°
C by using 250 m
2
of stone cladding. Openings for airflowinside the buildings are designed to suit smooth natural ventilation. Evolutionof the final design through various constraints is explained in this paper.
Keywords:
solar chimney; wind tower; sustainable building; energy efficiency;solar radiation; passive ventilation.
Reference
to this paper should be made as follows: Mathur, J. andKathpalia, R. (2008) ‘Design of passive cooling system for a building incomposite climatic conditions in India’,
 Int. J. Sustainable Design
, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp.110–126.
Biographical notes:
Jyotirmay Mathur is Coordinator for PostgraduateProgram in Energy Engineering and Reader in Mechanical EngineeringDepartment at the Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India.He has experience of 15 years research and teaching of engineering, particularly, energy related subjects. He works in the fields of energy efficiencyin buildings, passive systems for cooling and ventilation, solar thermal systems,and energy policy modelling. He has published 18 research papers in referred journals, presented 35 papers on international forums, authored/editedfive books in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy besidessuccessfully completing several nationally and internally funded research projects.Rajeev Kathpalia is a Postgraduate in Architecture and Urban Design.He is partner of Vastu Shilpa Consultants and Director, Vastu ShilpaFoundation for Studies and Research in Environmental Design, a non-profitresearch organisation at Ahmedabad, India. The organisation and Mr. Kathpaliaare well known names in the field of sustainable building design in India.In his professional career of 28 years, he has received several awards for sustainable building design. He is visiting faculty at the CEPT, Ahmedabad,
 
 
 Design of passive cooling system for a building 
111 
and acts as core faculty in international architectural studios organisedin collaboration with several universities of international repute such asUniversity of Stuttgart, Berne, Arhus, Washington and Michigan. He has beenmember of various national level committees such as CII National Committeefor Housing.
1 Introduction
Over the past few years, concern towards energy efficiency and incorporation of passivecooling systems in buildings has increased. In earlier times, when energy was notavailable in its most popular form, i.e., electricity, building designers had to rely onnatural ways and means for maximising comfort inside the building envelope. A major difference between ancient times and today’s situation is that today, none of the major resources namely, land, money and time are available in abundance. This has led toa situation where passive features must be designed more scientifically and technically ascompared to the past. Literature related to contemporary building design reveals thatthere are numerous examples displaying success stories in different climatic conditions,worldwide. In India, there are several showcase buildings such as a solar passive housein hot arid zones in India (Bansal and Minke, 1995) and a passive-cooled building for semi-arid zones (Srivastava et al., 1984) using wind tower, earth berm and evaporativecooling systems. Attempts have been made to design sustainable buildings for hot anddry climates using optimal building form and layout. On the other hand, there are buildings like MLA hostels in Simla, for cold climatic conditions using passive heatingconcepts (Majumdar, 2002). The first platinum rated LEED accredited building of Indiaalso displays use of passive cooling systems in building design (CII-GBC, 2004).There are also some examples of unsuccessful passive cooling systems. Bakiwala (2002)has prepared a report on non-functional passive features concluding that the failure was primarily due to two reasons:
inadequate design calculations or design by gut-feel
over-expectation from the passive feature.It also suggests that, as compared to the success stories, failure stories spread faster andare acting as indirect barriers to popularisation of passive cooling or heating concepts.As compared to design of passive features for hot or cold climatic conditions, designfor composite climates is little more typical and may lead to failure of concept if not done properly. The present paper shows various steps that have come in the way of designing passive systems for the climatic conditions of Delhi in India. In particular, it discussesvarious feasibility related issues that govern, or sometimes dominate in, the process of decision making. This paper additionally describes the situations or limitations thatsometimes compel adoption of a design that is not corresponding to best performance of a passive system. Many detailed calculations have been conducted for every decision thatrequired understanding of the transient heat transfer process. However, for simplicityand understanding of the main effects, only simplified versions of calculations are being presented here.
 
 112
 J. Mathur and R. Kathpalia
2 Description of building
2.1 Building location
The building to be studied in the present paper is located in New Delhi, the capital cityof India on a plot measuring 999.00 sqm. As per the existing laws, the maximum permissible ground coverage is 249.8 sqm i.e., 25% of plot area. The maximum permissible building height is 26 m with setbacks of, 9 m in the front, 6 m in the rear and4.5 m on each side. These details were extremely important for calculations related toshading by surroundings (Figure 1).
Figure 1
Site plan showing the existing and proposed CSE building
2.2 Building usage
Meant for use as an institutional building, the building has to house institutional offices,classrooms for holding training programmes, library and dormitories for accommodating participants of training programmes. The typical feature of such a combination isthat offices would operate daily from 0900 h to 1700 h, classrooms would be usedfrom 0900 h to 1700 h, only when the training programmes are organised and thedormitories would be occupied before 0900 h and after 1700 h during the days of training programmes. The library is likely to be used extensively during the training programmes.However, it has to remain open for access of office staff and visitors on all working days.
2.3 Building layout and plan
Since the site is oriented in North-South direction, a conventional layout would havelonger sides facing East-West. The building scheme of B + G + 3, i.e., five floor buildingincluding basement, ground and three floors over the ground floor, was adopted.

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