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Soil Science for Archaeologists

Soil Science for Archaeologists

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Published by Mark
Stewart Reed, Nathan Bailey, Oghenekome Onokpise,
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University and Southeast Archeological Center, National Park Service
Volume 1 — June 2000
Stewart Reed, Nathan Bailey, Oghenekome Onokpise,
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University and Southeast Archeological Center, National Park Service
Volume 1 — June 2000

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Published by: Mark on Jul 04, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/15/2013

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Soil Sciencefor Archeologists
Stewart ReedNathan BaileyOghenekome Onokpise
Edited by: Michael Russo and Virginia HorakFlorida Agricultural and Mechanical Universityand Southeast Archeological Center, National Park ServiceVolume 1 — June 2000
 
3
CONTENTS
F
IGURES
...............................................................................................................................................................4T
ABLES
................................................................................................................................................................4I
 NTRODUCTION
.....................................................................................................................................................5W
HAT
I
S
 
A
S
OIL
?.................................................................................................................................................5C
ONSTITUENTS
 
OF
S
OIL
.........................................................................................................................................6
§
 
 Mineral Matter ......................................................................................................................................
6
§
 
Organic Substances...............................................................................................................................
6
§
 
Water .....................................................................................................................................................
6
§
 
 Air..........................................................................................................................................................
6S
OIL
F
ORMATION
..................................................................................................................................................7
§
Parent Material......................................................................................................................................
7
§
Topography (Relief) ...............................................................................................................................
9
§
Climate ...................................................................................................................................................
9
§
Biological Activity ..................................................................................................................................
9
§
Time......................................................................................................................................................
10W
EATHERING
.....................................................................................................................................................10
§
Physical Weathering ............................................................................................................................
10
§
Chemical Weathering...........................................................................................................................
11M
INERALOGY
 
AND
W
EATHERING
S
EQUENCES
.......................................................................................................12
§
Primary Minerals .................................................................................................................................
12
§
Secondary Minerals .............................................................................................................................
12
§
Building a Soil......................................................................................................................................
13S
OIL
P
HYSICAL
P
ROPERTIES
................................................................................................................................14
§
Color ....................................................................................................................................................
14
§
Texture .................................................................................................................................................
16
§
Structure...............................................................................................................................................
20
§
Bulk Density .........................................................................................................................................
22M
ICROMORPHOLOGY
...........................................................................................................................................23C
HEMICAL
P
ROPERTIES
 
OF
S
OIL
...........................................................................................................................23S
OIL
P
ROFILES
 
AND
H
ORIZONS
............................................................................................................................25
§
Master Horizons...................................................................................................................................
25
§
Transitional Horizons ..........................................................................................................................
25
§
Subordinate Distinctions ......................................................................................................................
26
§
Diagnostic Horizons: Epipedons .........................................................................................................
28
§
Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons..........................................................................................................
28S
ELECTED
B
IBLIOGRAPHY
...................................................................................................................................30F
IELD
D
ESCRIPTION
C
HECK
L
IST
.........................................................................................................................31

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