electrical drive components using the couplingmodels.Exemplarily shown in this paper, a new approachmakes it possible to specify maximuminterference levels on the high voltage bus.
EMC Behavior of the Electric Drive
The main components of the new electric drivefor automotive applications are the electricmotor, the power converter, the power supplyand the lines connecting the components. Eachof these components acts as a path for electromagnetic emissions. The power converter is known to be the main source of EMI. So thecomponents of the drive system have to beanalyzed being either noise source or part of thecoupling path within the car’s new electricalsystem.
Power electronic systems are known to be themain source of electromagnetic interferenceswithin electric drive systems. The high speedswitching device, e.g. the insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT), is the noise source which hasto be modeled. A method to calculate thegenerated EMI of power electronic devices withchanging pulse patterns is introduced in . Mostavailable physics-based models of semiconductor switches are not developed for high frequency calculations. For this reason, asimplified description of the noise source isderived.
Figure 2: Half Bridge and its equivalent Circuit topredict EMI
Figure 2 shows the equivalent circuit to predictEMI of a high power density inverter. The currentsource I
models the current flowing into the half bridge. This current represents the source of differential mode interferences. The task of thevoltage source U
is to model the output voltagewhich is the source of common modeinterferences. Validity of these simplifications isproven in , thus the results can be used for further investigations.
Another crucial factor for an accurate EMIanalysis is the representation of the electricmotor in the EMI frequency range. The waynoise currents flow inside the machine does notnecessarily have to be determined. In fact, it ismore important to know the impedance of theelectric motor as a part of the noise path andhow this impedance varies as a function of frequency.For several years now, research has been doneon the electric motor and its impedanceconsidering electromagnetic noise in power electronic systems. The high-frequencyrepresentation of the motor impedance dependson the electric motor principle and not on thedrive application. Since the electric motors usedin electric vehicles are common ac machines, thehigh-frequency representations developed for other application than electric drives can be usedfor EMI predictions in electric vehicles.
Figure 3: Per-phase representation of the ac motor
Figure 3 shows a high-frequency per-phaserepresentation of an ac motor that has beenproposed for overvoltage analysis by Moreira .The parameter C
represents the winding-to-ground capacitance. The parameter R
is addedin the circuit to represent the dissipative effectsthat exist in the motor frame resistance. Thecircuit formed by the parameters R
isrelated to the winding turn-to-turn capacitance.The parameter R
is responsible to account for the losses introduced by eddy current inside themagnetic core. The parameter L
represents theleakage inductance of the machine winding. Themethodology for the parameter estimation can befound in .
The battery providing power to the converter is amain part of the path for EMI. Therefore, thebattery behavior within the high frequency rangeneeds to be determined.The basic structure of a battery consists of twoelectrodes and an electrolyte embedded in a