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Shrestha and Shrestha

Shrestha and Shrestha

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Published by: Central Department of Geology on Sep 25, 2010
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Bulletin of the Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, Vol. 11, 2008, pp. 31–40
Groundwater condition of Banepa area, Central Nepal
*
Suresh Shrestha and Suresh Das Shrestha
Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
ABSTRACT
Only surface water has been distributed in the Banepa Municipality area, Central Nepal by Nepal Water Supply Corporation(NWSC) and is not sufficient as per the demand of public. A hydrogeological study was made to know the groundwater potentialof the area. Banepa lies entirely in the Lesser Himalaya and constitutes consolidated phyllite and metasandstone basement rocks,and Quaternary sediment of gravel, sand and carbonaceous clay deposited in the valley. The thickness of sediment ranges from 20to 40 m, of which gravel, sand and clay individually approach upto 20, 5 and 15 m, respectively. Transmissivity of the aquifervaries from 0.8 to 3.15 m
2
 /day. Hydraulic conductivity varies from 0.022 to 0.14 m/day and specific capacity varies from 1.2 to 72m
3
 /day/m in the study area. The thickness of the aquifer is low and the hydraulic properties are also not favorable to extract sufficientquantity of groundwater in Banepa area. Therefore, an alternative source of water supply should be explored to fulfill present andfuture water demand.*Corresponding author:E-mail address: suresh-shrestha@hotmail.com
INTRODUCTION
Banepa which lies about 26 km east from thecentre of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal (Fig. 1), isfacing acute shortage of water supply. Being a smallcity in terms of population, the demand for watersupply is not so high. Although groundwater fromshallow dug well is being used at household level,Nepal Water Supply Corporation (NWSC) responsiblefor municipal water supply uses only surface water.APTCOS (2001) studied prospect of groundwater inBanepa Municipality and suggested tha appropriatelocation and depth of drilling for construction of borewell using geophysical method. NADCO (2002) andSSCDPL (2002) drilled number of wells in Banepa.BEMP (2003) mapped rock types and soil of Banepaand analysed groundwater and surface water of thearea.The present study was carried out to investigategroundwater condition and potential in the Banepaarea that covers about 20 km
2
.
METHOD AND MATERIAL
Geological survey of the Banepa area wasconducted to obtain the local geology of the studyarea. Water levels of dug wells were measured byusing simple measuring tape. The wells were slectedrandomly according to availability. In total, 26 dugwells were selected for groundwater level monitoring.The groundwater levels were measured for twoseasons, i.e., pre-monsoon and monsoon. Thegroundwater level for pre-monsoon was measured inthe first week of June 2007 and for monsoon wasmeasured in the second week of August 2007.Lithologs of bore wells, pumping test data and waterquality analysis data were collected from differentdrilling companies, NWSC and Banepa municipality.Analyses of available data were made to evaluategroundwater condition and potential.
Bulletin of the Department of Geology
 
32
S. Shrestha and S. D. Sherstha / Bulletin of the Department of Geology, Vol. 11, 2008, pp. 31–40
GEOLOGY OF STUDY AREA
The study area is located in Banepa, Central NepalLesser Himalaya. Geomorphological evolution of the study area was studied by Chetri (1993). Chetri(1993) also classified landforms and drainage patternand described weathering of rocks. The rock succession of the study area can be subdivided intoconsolidated basement rocks and Quaternarysediments (Figs 2 and 3). St
ö
cklin and Bhattarai(1981) mapped geology of the Central Nepal.Following their classification of rock units, the studyarea comprises rocks of the Phulchoki Group. Therocks are low-grade metasedimentary (phyllite andmetasandstone) belonging to the Tistung Formation.The age of the Tistung Formation is considered tobe early Cambrian according to Stocklin and Bhattarai(1981). The Quaternary sediments consists of black carbonaceous lacustrine clay deposits and alluvialfine to coarse sand and gravel. Thick black carbonaceous clay indicates lacustrine deposit (Dillet al. 2003).Phyllites observed in the study area are of twotypes, one with thin parting and intercalation withmetasandsotnes, and the other of thick bedded. The
Fig. 1 Location map of the study area
26
01000 m
N
Banepa
P    u   
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Tribhuvan chowk352500355000
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33
Groundwater condition of Banepa area, Central Nepal
   F   i  g .   2   G  e  o   l  o  g  y  o   f   t   h  e   B  a  n  e  p  a  a  r  e  a
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    3    0    5    7    5    0    0     3    0    6    0    0    0    0     3    0    6    0    0    0    0     3    0    5    7    5    0    0
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   T  r   i   b   h  u  v  a  n  c   h  o  w   k   N  a  y  a   b  a  s   t   i   T   h  a   k  u  r   i  g  a  o  n   B   h  a  n   d  a  r   i  g  a  o  n   J  a  n  a  g  a   l   S   i  n  a  g  a   l   D   h  a  n  e  s   h  w  o  r
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