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Published by: Central Department of Geology on Sep 25, 2010
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Bulletin of the Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, Vol. 10, 2007, pp. 71–78
Shallow soil slope instability analyses at horticultural farm,Daman, Central Nepal
Suman Manandhar
Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
ABSTRACT
Slope stability analyses were carried out for slopes around the horticultural farm at Daman, Central Mahabharat Region of Nepal. Daman lies in the Mahabharat zone with intruded granite as the basement rock. These granites are highly to completelyweathered and decomposed to few metres depth from the exposed surfaces. The horticultural farm is situated over these decomposedrocks with some colluvium along the hill slopes. The rainstorm of 19-21 July 1993 devasted the horticultural farm with numerouslandslides and gully erosions. Based on the limit equilibrium analysis theory and computed index as well as strength properties of the soil, analyses of three of the failed slopes were carried out. The analyses revealed that slides were unstable only during fullysaturated conditions.Corresponding author:E-mail address: geosuman@gmail.com
Bulletin of the Department of Geology
INTRODUCTION
The horticultural farm is situated on the ridge of Daman at an altitude of about 2300 m along theTribhuvan Highway. It lies south of the KathmanduValley in the Maharabharat Zone, CentralDevelopment Region of Nepal (Fig. 1).The Daman ridge is formed of intruded granitethat has been highly to completely weathered tocertain depth. It is subject to numerous landslidesand gully erosion (Manandhar 2000). Besides, theunprecedented rainstorm of 19-21 July 1993 affectedthe entire area with numerous landslides and gullyerosion. These landslides were caused due to small-scale shallow slope failures. The slope instabilityanalyses of the slopes were carried out to find thefactor of safety of the slopes during dry and fullysaturated conditions.
GEOLOGICAL SETTING
The Daman area comprises of the Palung graniteintruded in the Bhimphedi Group of rocks (Stöklinand Bhattarai 1981). These granites are highly tocompletely weathered and have converted to yellowbrown soil. However, along the streambeds, granitesare moderately weathered and closely jointed. Thegranite constitutes quartz, plagioclase, biotite, andperthite as essential minerals with few tourmalines.These minerals are small-grained (less than 3 mm).
LANDSLIDES AND GULLY EROSION
There are about 73 landslides and 12 gullies withina total area of 51,600 m
2
. The total rock/soil displacedwas 34,100 m
3
of which the landslide had displaced31,800 m
3
and gully erosion had displaced 2,300 m
3
.The area covered by landslides is 11,650 m
2
. Theaverage depth of failure is 0.8 m (Dhital et al. 1993).The soil depth of the area ranges from <1 to >6 m.The average depth is about 3 m. Descriptions of studied landslides in the horticultural farm are givenin Table 1.
METHODS
Geotechnical properties were computed to findstrength parameters of soil slopes for computationalanalyses. Factor of safety of translational and rotationalsoil slopes were determined.
C     
e    
n   
t     
r    
a   
l   
D  
e  
 p 
m
 e
 n
 t 
 o
 f 
  G
   e
   o
     l
   o
   g 
    y 
i
i
 p
 u
 r
 
72
S. Manandhar/ Bulletin of the Department of Geology, Vol. 10, 2007, pp. 71–78
Stability Analyses of Infinite Slopes
Translational slide often initiates without anysignificant change in geometry of the unstable region.An ‘infinite slope’ denotes a uniform slope of anextent large enough that a typical element can beconsidered representative of the slope as a whole,and irregularities at the toe and the crest of the slidecan be ignored. The soil properties and porewaterpressures at any given distance below the groundsurface were assumed to be constant (Graham 1984).When the depth to a planar surface was smallcompared with length, the stability was analyzed asan infinite slope.If a typical slide of depth z and width b boundedby the vertical lines IJ and KL is isolated for attention,then from considerations of continuity it follows thatthe resultant forces Q
L
and Q
r
on the sides of theslice must be equal, opposite and collinear (Fig. 2).The vertical force across the base of the slice mustequal weight W which can be resolved into normal(P) and tangential (T) components. For stability, thedownslope shear stress must not exceed the shearstrength
t
of the clay. The safety factor in the slopecan be defined in terms of effective stresses by theratio,
t
 / 
t
that is:F = {(C’ + (
g
g
w
) tan
f
’}/tan
b
(1)If the groundwater level is at the slope surface(m=1), and soil is cohesionless (C’) is zero thenF = {(
g
g
w
) tan
f
’}/tan
b
(2)For dry condition, unit weight of water (
g
w
)becomes zero, the equation (2) becomes as follows:F = tan
f
’/tan
b
(3)
Simplified Janbu method for finite slopes
The ‘finite slope’ is used to designate a non-uniform slope. There are number of elements andirregularities. Such slopes may expose curvilinearrather than planar to the surface (Graham 1984). Fig.3 shows a potential sliding surface with centre O andradius R (Graham 1984). Water on the left and rightof the section produces moments A
l
a
l
and A
r
a
r
. Theslide mass is divided into slices by vertical planesand a typical slice IJKL is shown. The methodassumes that the resultant forces Q
L
and Q
r
on IJ andKL, respectively are equal and opposite and parallelto the base of the slice JK.The simplified Janbu method was used todetermine the stability of the slide mass. The methoddescribes a relatively simple analysis for generalizedslide surfaces which neglects the interslice forces inthe expression for P. It satisfies vertical forceequilibrium for each slice, as well as overall horizontalforce equilibrium for the entire slide mass. The factorof safety for fully saturated soil mass was calculatedusing the following expression (Graham 1984):'
=
[ ]
==
D-+
i N iiic
mubc b
1
tansec'tan)(
aaf
a
å
==
 N ii
1
(4)During dry condition, porewater (u) was zero andthe equation (5) as given below was used.
=
[ ]
==
DD+
i N iiic
mc b
1
tansec'tan
aaf
a
å
==
 N ii
1
(5)'Where, 
m
a
=
cos
a
tan
a
'tan
f
1+(6)The reported Janbu safety factor F was determinedby multiplying calculated safety factor F
c
by a
Fig. 1 Location map of study area
85°03’85°03’85°12’85°12’
        2        7       °        3        9        ’
2  7  °  3   9  ’     2  7  °  3   6  ’     
        2        7       °        3        6        ’
Study Area
DamanPalungMarkhuChitlangKulekhaniReservoir
 
73modification factor f 
0
, then:F = f 
0
x F
c
(7)This modification factor that is a function of theslide geometry and the strength parameters of thesoil was obtained from slope geometry and soil type.The parameters, d and L were substitued for slopegeometry where they belonged to depth of slide andlength of slope profile. For convenience, thismodification factor was computed using the equation(8) below:
 f 
0
=
1+b
1
dd(8)LL–1.4
2
Where, b
1
varied according to the soil type. Valuesof b
1
was 0.69 when
f
=0, that was when there wascohesion only. Similarly, b
1
was 0.31 and 0.50 whenc’=0 and
f
’= 0, c’
¹
0 conditions, respectively(Abramson et al. 2002).
Fig. 2 Planar failure in infinite slope (based on Graham 1984)
Shallow soil slope instability analyses at horticultural farm, Daman, Central Nepal
Fig. 3 Circular arc sliding surface in finite slope illustrating theelements of modified Janbu methodFig. 4 Sketch of the translational soil slide SL-1 at the HorticulturalFarm, Daman
  R a d  i  u s   R
Oa
l
a
r
A
L
A
r
b
GWLGWL
WTN
a
Slip SurfacePore Water Pressure uSoil Strength c’,
f
IJKLQ
L
Q
r
Slope
ß
Slide Surface
T
Pore Water PressureIJKLbGWLmzPWb secßcos
2
mzßcos
2
ßu =
g
w
. mz
Z
vvv v v v vv v v v vv
3 m
012
v v v v vv v v v v vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv v v v v vv v v v v vv v v v vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv vv
A
vvvvvvvvvvv
 
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
A
v v vv v vv v vv v v v v vv v v v v vv v v v vv v v v vv vv v vvvv v v v v vv v v v v vv v v v v vv v v v vv v v v vv v v v vv v v v v vv v v v v vv v v vv v vvvvvvvvvvvvv v v v v vv v v v vvvvvvvvv v vv v v v v vv v v v v vv v v v v vv v v v v vvvvvvvvvvv v v v v vv v v v v vv v v vv v v vvvv
 
vvvvvvv+ + + + + + + ++ + + + + + ++ + + + + + ++ + + + ++ + + + ++ + + + ++ + + + ++ + + + ++ + + + ++ + + + ++ + + + ++ + + + ++ + + ++ + + + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ +
12
vv vv v vv v vvvvvvvvvvvvv
3m
vvvvvvvvvvvv+ + + + ++ +
LEGEND
Highly Weathered GraniteLandslide ScarEscarpmentTree, Bent TreeFoot TrailProfileBush, ShrubSoil
Colluvium
Crown
N
+++
 
v v v
AA’

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