assistance within social services more generally, rather than specifying it as a separatetype, and epistemologically by adopting a relational approach, drawing on the work of McAdam, Tarrow and Tilly (McAdam, Tarrow et al. 2001), in an effort to begin toidentify causal mechanisms that are of analytical utility to the situation in Sudan and possibly to other similar situations more generally.
Social Service Delivery and Humanitarian Aid
This paper frames social services to include both those services provided by the state andthose provided by non-state actors, including national and international NGOs and churchgroups. While social services is a broad term, in practice in Sudan it refers to health andnutritional services, education and housing / shelter. Framing social services to includehumanitarian aid draws on the work of both Duffield (Duffield 1999;
2001), andChandler (Chandler 2002) in their characterization of NGO activities. Both point to theeffective privatization of social welfare provision in developing states because of the debtcrisis of the 1970s and subsequent impact of structural adjustment in the 1980s, withinternational NGOs taking on increasingly longer-term commitments for service provision in weaker states. Duffield characterizes this development as part of thehollowing out of developing states, with such institutional arrangements supporting theinterests of metropolitan states through the projection of authority through non-stateactors and non-territorial networks of international assistance.However, hollowing out does not necessarily mean dissolution. As this paper demonstrates, even hollowed out states can exercise considerable influence on themanner on which services are provided. Bringing the state back in to the analysis3