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C1003- Chapter 4

C1003- Chapter 4

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C1003
 
CHAPTER 4 : SET NOTATION/REPRESENTATION AND PROBABILITY
 
CHAPTER 4 : SET NOTATIONREPRESENTATION AND PROBABILITY
Chapter Objectives
At the completion of this chapter, you should understand:
 
the logical requirements of a set;
 
how to enumerate and specify sets;
 
the use of Venn diagrams;
 
problem solving;
 
relations between sets;
 
that in real life problems, we have to deal with likelihood and not 100%certainty. Probability model allows us to evaluate the chances or likelihood;
 
probability and know the valid range of values of a probability;
 
Venn Diagram as probability spaced;
 
and find probability of combined events;
 
and use tree diagrams to depict all possible outcomes in a program, it helpsin determining the probability of relevant event.
4-1
 
C1003
 
CHAPTER 4 : SET NOTATION/REPRESENTATION AND PROBABILITY
 
4.1 Introduction
Many real life problems can be analysed further as some collection of objects,each collection of objects may have logical relationship with another. Thischapter will tell us how sets and Venn diagrams can be used to real life problems.
4.2 De
fi
nition of Set
A set is a collection of objects, things or symbols, for instance, numbers, namesof people, colours etc.The individual objects in a set are called elements or members of the set. All themembers of the set have a common feature, which links them in some way.The elements in a set must be unique.
4.3 Notation
To identify specific sets, we may either give them names, or just using capitalletters.For example:A = {2,4,6,8,10} or {x: x is even integer and 1 < x < 10}B = {1,3,5,7,9} or {x: x is odd integer and 1 < x < 10}C = {CAT, DOG, HORSE, LION, RABBIT, TIGER}D = {BLACK, BLUE, GREEN, ORANGE, PINK, RED, YELLOW}E = {x: x is a month in the year}Take set E as an example, we know that July is a member of E, while Tuesday isnot a member of E. We therefore abbreviate the phrase “is a member of” by usingthe Greek letter epsilon,
, and
, to denote “is not a member of”.As for the above examples, we may write CAT
C, July
E, but Tuesday
E.
4.4 Venn Diagrams
We have learn two methods of expressing a set:
 
By listing the elements within brackets, {}.
 
By specifying the main characteristics of the set.
4-2 
 
C1003
 
CHAPTER 4 : SET NOTATION/REPRESENTATION AND PROBABILITY
 
Beside these two ways, we can also use diagram, Venn Diagram. Usually arectangle is used to denote the universal set U.For example, U = {1,2,3,4,5}, A = {1,2,3} and B = {4,5} then the Venn Diagramis
AB12345U
 
 Figure 6-1
4.5 Relation Between Sets
4.5.1 Universal Set
For all problems, there exists a fixed set which called the Universal Set. This isthe largest set which contains all the related items.The Universal Set is denoted by U or
ξ
.
4.5.2 The Null or Empty Set
The sets that we discussed above contain at least one element. There are somesets that do not contain any element at all. We call them the null or empty set.The Empty Set is denoted by
or a pair of empty brackets {}.Examples of null set are:
 
The set of pupils in your class who are less than 12 years old.
 
The set of months with 12 days.
 
The set of cats in Singapore with four tails.
 
The set of cars with 68 doors.
4-3 

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