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Chapter 6WCDMAChapter 6
This chapter presents the WCDMA air interface, referred also as UMTS terrestrial radioaccess (UTRA), developed by the third-generation partnership project (3GPP). 3GPPhas the goal to harmonize and standardize in detail the similar proposals from ETSI,ARIB, TTC, TTA, and T1.Table 6.1 lists the parameters of WCDMA. WCDMA has two modescharacterized by the duplex method: FDD (frequency division duplex) and TDD (timedivision duplex), for operating with paired and unpaired bands, respectively [1]. TheTDD mode is described in Chapter 7.The chip rate of the system is 3.84 Mcps. The frame length is 10 ms and eachframe is divided into 15 slots (2560 chip/slot at the chip rate 3.84 Mcps). Spreadingfactors range from 256 to 4 in the uplink and from 512 to 4 in the downlink. Thus, therespective modulation symbol rates vary from 960 k symbols/s to 15 k symbols/s (7.5 k symbols/s) for FDD uplink. For separating channels from the same source, orthogonalvariable spreading factor (OVSF) channelization codes are used. In the downlink, Goldcodes with a 10-ms period (38400 chips at 3.84 Mcps) are used to separate differentcells, with the actual code itself length 2
-1 chips. In the uplink, Gold codes with a 10-ms period, or alternatively short codes with a 256-chip period, are used to separate thedifferent users.For the channel coding three options are supported: convolutional coding, turbocoding, or no channel coding. Channel coding selection is indicated by upper layers. Bitinterleaving is used to randomize transmission errors. The modulation scheme is QPSK.The carrier spacing has a raster of 200 kHz and can vary from 4.2 to 5.4 MHz.The different carrier spacings can be used to obtain suitable adjacent channelprotections depending on the interference scenario. Figure 6.1 shows an example for theoperator bandwidth of 15 MHz with three cell layers. Larger carrier spacing can beapplied between operators than within one operator’s band in order to avoid inter-operator interference. Interfrequency measurements and handovers are supported by171
172WCDMA to utilize several cell layers and carriers.This chapter is organized as follows. WCDMA specification structure is given inSection 6.2. Protocol structure and logical and transport channels are described inSection 6.3. Physical channels, spreading, multirate schemes (variable data rates),packet data, and handover are discussed in Sections 6.4
6.8. Section 6.9 describes thefuture evolution of the WCDMA covering release 2000 standards and beyond.
The air interface description in the following is based on the 3GPP wideband CDMAspecifications as listed in Table 6.2. The physical layer is specified in TS25 series of 3GPP specifications.
Table 6.1
Parameters of WCDMAChannel bandwidth 5 MHzDuplex mode FDD and TDDDownlink RF channel structure Direct spreadChip rate 3.84 MbpsFrame length 10 msSpreading modulation Balanced QPSK (downlink)Dual-channel QPSK(uplink)Complex spreading circuitData modulation QPSK (downlink)BPSK (uplink)Channel coding Convolutional and turbo codesCoherent detection User dedicated time multiplexed pilot (downlinand uplink), common pilot in the downlink Channel multiplexing in downlink Data and control channels time multiplexedChannel multiplexing in uplink Control and pilot channel time multiplexedI&Q multiplexing for data and control channelMultirate Variable spreading and multicodeSpreading factors 4256 (uplink), 4512 (uplink)Power control Open and fast closed loop (1.6 kHz)Spreading (downlink) OVSF sequences for channel separationGold sequences 2
-1 for cell and user separation(truncated cycle 10 ms)Spreading (uplink) OVSF sequences, Gold sequence 2
for userseparation (different time shifts in I and Q channel,truncated cycle 10 ms)Handover Soft handoverInterfrequency handover
Operator band 15 MHz4.2-5.0 MHz 4.2-5.0 MHz3 cell layers5.0-5.4 MHz 5.0-5.4 MHzAnother UMTSoperatorAnother UMTSoperatorPowerFrequency
Figure 6.1
Frequency utilization with WCDMA.
Figure 6.2 shows the air interface protocol architecture. The protocol architecture issimilar to the current ITU-R protocol architecture, ITU-R M.1035. The air interface islayered into three protocol layers:
The physical layer (layer 1, L1);
The data link layer (layer 2, L2);
Network layer (layer 3, L3).The physical layer interfaces the medium access control (MAC) sublayer of layer 2 and the radio resource control (RRC) layer of layer 3. The physical layer offersdifferent transport channels to MAC. A transport channel is characterized by how theinformation is transferred over the radio interface. Transport channels are channel codedand then mapped to the physical channels specified in the physical layer. MAC offersdifferent logical channels to the radio link control (RLC) sublayer of layer 2. A logicalchannel is characterized by the type of information transferred.Layer 2 is split into following sublayers: MAC, RLC, packet data convergenceprotocol (PDCP) and broadcast/multicast control (BMC). Layer 3 and RLC are dividedinto control and user planes. PDCP and BMC exist in the user plane only. In the controlplane, layer 3 is partitioned into sublayers where the lowest sublayer, denoted as RRC,interfaces with layer 2. The RLC sublayer provides ARQ functionality closely coupledwith the radio transmission technique used.

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