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Published by: anon-452267 on Jul 04, 2008
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Organizational objectives can be achieved only through the efforts of people. Jobs within theorganization must be staffed with personnel who are qualified to perform them. Meeting thesestaffing needs requires effective planning for human resources.Once the HR planning function is fulfilled, then the staffing of the organization must becompleted through the recruitment process. Employment recruiting has acquired a newimportance for managers since both manufacturing and service organizations are finding itincreasingly difficult to find qualified applicants to fill job openings.According to a Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) special report on theU.S. labor shortage, most employers have entered a period in which jobs ranging from theunskilled to the professional and technical are harder to staff; and this condition is not likely toabate in the near future. No longer can managers rely solely upon unsolicited applications to fillopenings.Changing employment conditions mandate that managers consider a variety of recruitmentalternatives to attract the right employees to the organization. The process of planning for HR needs, sources of applicants, and methods of attracting applicants will require new innovativerecruitment ideas.
Human Resources Planning
Human resources planning (HRP) is the process of anticipating and making provision for themovement of people into, within, and out of an organization. Its purpose is to deploy theseresources as effectively as possible,
they are needed, in order to accomplish theorganization's goals.
Human resources planning (HRP)The process of anticipating and makingprovision for the movement of peopleinto, within, and out of an organization
Other more specific purposes of HRP include anticipating labor shortages and surpluses; providing more employment opportunities for women, minorities, and the disabled; and mappingout employee training programs. In fact, HRP provides a launching point for most all of theactivities that are subsumed under HRM.
Importance of Human Resources Planning
Consider these facts:
The U.S. labor force will grow by only about 1 percent each year between 1986 and 2005.
Between 80 and 90 percent of the new labor force entrants will be minorities and women.
Immigrants will account for more than 23 percent of the change in the labor-forcecomposition over the period from 1986 to 2000.
The average age of the workforce will be 39 by the year 2000.
The five occupations expected to experience faster-than-average growth are technicians,service workers, professionals, sales representatives, and executive and managerialemployees. These occupations require the highest education and skill levels.
 Nearly one-third of the workforce is composed of part-timers, temporary workers, and theself-employed.
2.5 million functionally illiterate Americans enter the workforce yearly.These dramatic shifts in the composition of the U.S. labor force require that managers become more involved in HRP. The employment market in non-U.S. developed countries isequally as challenging except that the demographics are a little different. Each of these changesaffects employee recruitment while requiring additional HRP in the areas of employee selection,training, compensation, and motivation.Although planning has always been an essential process of management, increased emphasison HRP provides the foundation for establishing an effective HRM program and for coordinatingthe HRM functions being performed within it. HRP becomes especially critical when organiza-tions consider mergers, the relocation of plants, downsizing, or the closing of operating facilities.
An organization may incur several intangible costs as a result of inadequate HRP or the lack of HRP. For example, inadequate HRP can cause vacancies to remain unfilled. The resulting lossin efficiency can be costly, particularly when lead time is required to train replacements.Situations also may occur in which employees are laid off in one department whileapplicants are hired for similar jobs in another department. This may cause overhiring and resultin the need to lay off those employees who were recently hired. Finally, lack of HRP makes itdifficult for employees to make effective plans for career or personal development. As a result,some of the more competent and ambitious ones may seek other employment where they feelthey will have better career opportunities.
HRP and Strategic Planning
As organizations plan for their future, HR managers must be concerned with meshing HRP withstrategic business planning. At the broadest level, strategic planning addresses the question"What business are we in?" HRP, on the other hand, addresses the question "What skills areneeded for success in this business?"Through strategic planning, organizations set major objectives and develop comprehensive plans to achieve those objectives. This involves making primary resource allocation decisions,including those pertaining to structure, key processes, and the interrelationships among humanresources. An increasingly vital element of strategic planning is determining if people areavailable, internally or externally, to carry out the organization's goals.HRP and strategic planning become effective when there is a reciprocal and interdependentrelationship between them. In this relationship, the top management team recognizes thatstrategic-planning decisions affect--and are affected by--HR functions.
The HR department andits activities are then viewed as credible and important along with other management functionssuch as production, marketing, service, and finance.HR managers must not only recognize the potential contribution they can make toorganizational growth and development, they must be proactive in developing HR programs and policies that foster the organization's strategic mission. This positive linkage occurs when the HR manager becomes a member of the organization's management steering committee or strategic- planning group. Once this interactive and dynamic structure exists, HR managers are recognizedas contributing strategic planners alongside other top managers.IBM has been a forerunner in the integration of HRP and strategic planning. Within IBM'smanufacturing and product development businesses the corporation's HR department develops afive-year HR strategic plan and a two-year tactical plan based on tentative business goals. Thesegoals are formulated only after IBM conducts an internal and external analysis of the company'sstrengths and weaknesses. Major business decisions are not approved until the vice president of HR concurs with the business plan.
HRP and Environmental Scanning
Environmental scanning is the systematic, regular monitoring of the major external forcesinfluencing the organization. In theory, HRP requires an integration of the environment with all

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