New Direct Fuel Injection Engine Control Systems for Meeting Future Fuel Economy Requirements and Emission Standards
Variable valve system
Expanded phase and lift controlNon-throttleUse of freedomin injectioncontrolUse of highpowerSupercharging systemFuel consumption (CO
)and emissions standards
Use of torquecontrol bymeans of injection control
Use of fueleconomy andlow emissionsIdling stopMild/full HEV
Hybrid/42-V systemDownsizingSystem for stricterregulations
Basic directfuel injectionsystem
in 2005.For the intake system, we supply airflow sensorsand electronic throttle body control for accurate controlof engine air intake and torque. For the combustionsystem, we supply the world
s lightest high-pressurefuel pump, which has an aluminum housing, andinjectors that produce spray patterns for variouscombustion chamber shapes and combustion systems.For the exhaust system, we produce a lean NO
(nitrogen oxides) catalyst that is highly efficient inremoving NO
during lean burn combustion. We havealso made proposals concerning various factors thatgovern combustion, such as the injector spraycharacteristics and the shape of the piston andcombustion chamber on the basis of proprietarysimulations (see Fig. 1).Here, we describe the most recent enginecombustion technology and the control technology andcomponents for implementing it.
DIRECT FUEL INJECTION ENGINECONTROL SYSTEM
Characteristics and Application of Direct FuelInjection Engine
The structures of the conventional port fuelinjection engine and the direct fuel injection engineare compared in Fig. 2. In the direct fuel injectionengine, fuel is injected directly into the enginecylinders, so the timing of the injection and thedistribution of the mixture within the cylinder can befreely controlled. That makes it possible to raise thecompression ratio and fuel economy as well as thepower output. Furthermore, direct fuel injectionengines have a high degree of freedom in control, so
Fig. 2—Structures of Port Fuel Injection Engine and Direct Fuel Injection Engine. In the direct fuel injection engine, the fuel is injected from theinjector directly into the cylinder and burned, allowing a higher compression ratio and power output than does a port fuelinjection engine.Fig. 3—Characteristics of Direct Fuel Injection Engine System.The direct fuel injection engine has high power output, variablespray and low emissions characteristics, and is being applied to powertrains for meeting future requirements.
the basic engine characteristics such as knock toleranceand response, lean burn, and EGR (exhaust gasrecirculation), can be greatly improved compared toport fuel injection systems. Using these superior basiccharacteristics, the Hitachi Group is developing a newsystem that includes variable valve control, and hybridsystem and supercharger system downsizing to meetthe stricter regulations (see Fig. 3).
Configuration of Control System
Extracting the superior performance of the directfuel injection engine requires an innovation of components and new advances in control systemtechnology. Specifically, high-pressure fuel pumps andinjectors are key components for attaining more precisecontrol of the engine
s basic process of combustionunder high compression (5 to 12 MPa). With theobjective of achieving highly responsive combustioncontrol under high pressures, we are developing thekey components for complete combustion undervarious driving conditions.Also, airflow sensors for accurate detection of theamount of air intake to the engine and highlyresponsive electronic throttle body control are beingused to control the torque generated by the engineaccording to occasional changes in the requirementsof the driver. Some direct fuel injection engines use alean burn for highly efficient operation, so a lean NO
catalyst for reducing NO
under lean conditions
High compression ratioImproved fuel economyHigh power output
(b) Direct fuel injection engine(a) Port fuel injection engine