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Published by: keval patel on Sep 26, 2010
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Hitachi Review Vol. 53 (2004), No. 4
New Direct Fuel Injection Engine Control Systems forMeeting Future Fuel Economy Requirements and EmissionStandards
OVERVIEW: Recently, the need to reduce CO
levels has made increased  fuel economy an urgent matter in Japan and Europe. Use of the highlyefficient diesel engine is expected to increase and measures against emissionssuch as soot are a major problem. Gasoline engines, on the other hand, aremore sustainable in terms of exhaust emissions, and are steadily approachingthe diesel engine in terms of fuel economy as well. Since introducing adirect fuel injection engine control system in 1997, the Hitachi Group hascontinued to develop and manufacture system control and the maincomponents for it, and now we are expanding into Europe as well. We arealso proposing various advanced system solutions in response to needs for automobile fuel economy, emissions and power.
Minoru OsugaYoshiyuki TanabeShinya IgarashiMasahiro ZaitsuTakuya ShiraishiMotoyuki Abe
SINCE coming on the market in earnest in 1997, thedirect fuel injection engine has become widespread,mainly in Japan. Recently, though, the fuel economyand high performance characteristics of these enginesystems also have created an opportunity for rapidpenetration into the European market, where the CO
problem is getting worse.The Hitachi Group has many years of experiencein applying engine control system technology to directfuel injection systems and also in offering productsfor those systems. Currently, we are proposing a newsystem to cope with the stricter environmentalregulations concerning emissions and CO
that begin
Exhaust systemCombustion system
Electronically controlledthrottle bodyEngine control unitLean NO
catalystAir flow sensor(slot-in type)
CompactHigh responseHigh precisionCompact
Spray designLong nozzle
High-pressure fuel pump (single cylinder type)
Compact and light (aluminum housing: 800 g)Low driven torque (variable flow rate type)Lighter, fewer componentsIntegrated injector and driverAdsorption-reactiontypeHigh cleaning rateHigh toleranceAir-fuelratio sensorEngineSpark plugAirflowSimulation
SprayIn-cylinder mixture/combustion analysis
• Spray and airflow optimizationInjector
Intake systemFuel system
Fig. 1—Basic Structure and Main Components of Direct Fuel Injection Engine System. In addition to manufacturing the major components of the direct fuel injection engine system, the HitachiGroup has developed various kinds of system control technology. Our components cover the entire system from air intake system to the fuel system and the exhaust system. With our proprietary simulation and analysistechnology, we aim for optimization of the combustion system, including the fuel injection spray and airflow.
New Direct Fuel Injection Engine Control Systems for Meeting Future Fuel Economy Requirements and Emission Standards
Variable valve system
Expanded phase and lift controlNon-throttleUse of freedomin injectioncontrolUse of highpowerSupercharging systemFuel consumption (CO
)and emissions standards
Use of torquecontrol bymeans of injection control
Use of fueleconomy andlow emissionsIdling stopMild/full HEV
Hybrid/42-V systemDownsizingSystem for stricterregulations
HighpowerHighresponseHighEGRLeanburnKnock tolerance
Basic directfuel injectionsystem
in 2005.For the intake system, we supply airflow sensorsand electronic throttle body control for accurate controlof engine air intake and torque. For the combustionsystem, we supply the world
s lightest high-pressurefuel pump, which has an aluminum housing, andinjectors that produce spray patterns for variouscombustion chamber shapes and combustion systems.For the exhaust system, we produce a lean NO
(nitrogen oxides) catalyst that is highly efficient inremoving NO
during lean burn combustion. We havealso made proposals concerning various factors thatgovern combustion, such as the injector spraycharacteristics and the shape of the piston andcombustion chamber on the basis of proprietarysimulations (see Fig. 1).Here, we describe the most recent enginecombustion technology and the control technology andcomponents for implementing it.
Characteristics and Application of Direct FuelInjection Engine
The structures of the conventional port fuelinjection engine and the direct fuel injection engineare compared in Fig. 2. In the direct fuel injectionengine, fuel is injected directly into the enginecylinders, so the timing of the injection and thedistribution of the mixture within the cylinder can befreely controlled. That makes it possible to raise thecompression ratio and fuel economy as well as thepower output. Furthermore, direct fuel injectionengines have a high degree of freedom in control, so
Fig. 2—Structures of Port Fuel Injection Engine and Direct Fuel Injection Engine. In the direct fuel injection engine, the fuel is injected from theinjector directly into the cylinder and burned, allowing a higher compression ratio and power output than does a port fuelinjection engine.Fig. 3—Characteristics of Direct Fuel Injection Engine System.The direct fuel injection engine has high power output, variablespray and low emissions characteristics, and is being applied to powertrains for meeting future requirements.
the basic engine characteristics such as knock toleranceand response, lean burn, and EGR (exhaust gasrecirculation), can be greatly improved compared toport fuel injection systems. Using these superior basiccharacteristics, the Hitachi Group is developing a newsystem that includes variable valve control, and hybridsystem and supercharger system downsizing to meetthe stricter regulations (see Fig. 3).
Configuration of Control System
Extracting the superior performance of the directfuel injection engine requires an innovation of components and new advances in control systemtechnology. Specifically, high-pressure fuel pumps andinjectors are key components for attaining more precisecontrol of the engine
s basic process of combustionunder high compression (5 to 12 MPa). With theobjective of achieving highly responsive combustioncontrol under high pressures, we are developing thekey components for complete combustion undervarious driving conditions.Also, airflow sensors for accurate detection of theamount of air intake to the engine and highlyresponsive electronic throttle body control are beingused to control the torque generated by the engineaccording to occasional changes in the requirementsof the driver. Some direct fuel injection engines use alean burn for highly efficient operation, so a lean NO
catalyst for reducing NO
under lean conditions
Spark plug
High compression ratioImproved fuel economyHigh power output
(b) Direct fuel injection engine(a) Port fuel injection engine
Intake air
Intake portInjector
Hitachi Review Vol. 53 (2004), No. 4
Generated torque controlEmissions reduction control(NO
catalyst and cold HC)High pressure andhigh responsefuel injection controlCombustion control
Lean NO
 catalystEngineSpark plugAirflowsensorElectronicthrottle controlHigh-pressurefuel pumpInjector
(excess oxygen) is required.The Hitachi Group also supplies a high cleaningrate control for that purpose (see Fig. 4).
Combustion Analysis Technology for Direct FuelInjection Engines
For the opening of the injector, which is the key toin-cylinder combustion control, we are applyinganalysis technology that makes full use of simulation(see Fig. 5). The Hitachi Group engine combustioncontrol technology is based on our irregularcompressible fluid analysis program for analyzingpneumatic two-layer flow in nuclear power plants.Currently, we are making various improvements andincreasing the practicality of the system. The mainpoints of the improvements are to shorten thedevelopment turnaround time as much as possible andaccurate reproduction of in-cylinder phenomena. Forthe former, we have developed the Voxel method, inwhich a 2 million-cell mesh can be created directlyfrom a 3D-CAD (computer-aided design) diagram inabout five minutes. That makes it possible to reducethe work involved in mesh creation, which previouslytook several weeks, and allow surveys concerningpiston shape and other parameters of the combustionchamber to be performed in a short time. Concerningthe second of the two points, the objective was toimprove accuracy in reproducing the air movementwithin the cylinder. The development of technologyfor directly simulating turbulence will allow the sprayshape and air movement in the cylinder, which stronglyaffect combustion, to be reproduced with highaccuracy.An example of applying this simulation to the directfuel injection engine is shown in Fig. 5. In thecalculation of the air mixture injected directly into thecylinder and the resulting combustion flame, it is
Fig. 4
 Basic Structure and Main Functions of Direct Fuel Injection Engine Control System.The functions include control of the torque that arises in variousdriving situations, optimal fuel injection, combustion control,emissions reduction control over the entire range from idling tohigh speed.Fig. 5
Simulation of Air Movement in Engine and Combustion Analysis with Example of Application to Direct Fuel Injection Engine. Aiming for fast and accurate mesh generation, we are performing integrated simulations that cover the entirecombustion process, beginning with air intake into the cylinder and including injection of the fuel, ignition, and combustion. The results are used to determine injector spray characteristics and propose shapes for thecombustion chamber, and other aspects of developing combustion technology for the direct fuel injection engine.
Improvement of the simulation methodApplication to direct fuel injection engine
Integrated simulation over the entire combustion process:Intake into the cylinder
Conventional method(100 thousand-cell mesh)Voxel method(2 million-cell mesh)Automatic mesh generation(takes 5 min.)Conventional method (k-e model)Direct simulation(0.5 mm
cell)Improvedair flow accuracy
Mixture distributionwithin the cylinderExample computation of combustion flame

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