Pedestrian Safety at Intersections
I S S U E B R I E F
Intersection Design/Physical Improvements
Install barriers such as fences orshrubs to discourage pedestri-ans from crossing at unsafe loca-tions;
Install bulb-outs at intersectionsto reduce pedestrian crossingdistance;
Provide wide refuge islands andmedians;
Construct pedestrian overpass-es/underpasses;
Install raised medians;and
Reduce corner radii.
Reassess traffic signal operations,including consideration of pedes-trian walking speeds/pedestriansignal timing and pedestrian-onlyphasing Consider restricting right-turn-on-red (RTOR);
Mid-block traffic signal;and
Far-side bus stops.
Consider installation ofPedestrian CountdownSignals
2003 MUTCD Section 4E.07 Countdown Pedestrian Signals
A pedestrian interval countdown dis-play may be added to a pedestrian sig-nal head in order to inform pedestri-ans of the number of seconds remain-ing in the pedestrian change interval.
Consider installation ofAnimated Eye PedestrianSignal
Animated eyes are intended for useat pedestrian crosswalks as an alter-native to conventional pedestrian sig-nals.Animated eye displays mayencourage pedestrians to look forturning vehicles traveling on an inter-secting path by including a prompt aspart of the pedestrian signal.Theprompt is a pair of animated eyes thatscan from side to side at the start ofthe WALK indication.
2003 MUTCD:Section 4E.06 Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APS)
The installation of APS at signalizedlocations should be based on an engi-neering study,which should considerthe following factors:
potentialdemand for accessible pedestrian sig-nals;
a request for accessiblepedestrian signals;
traffic volumesduring times when pedestrians mightbe present,including periods of low-traffic volumes or high turn-on-redvolumes;
complexity of traffic sig-nal phasing;and
complexity ofintersection geometry.When usingAPS,the pedestrian signal must bevisible and any push-buttons must beaccessible with audible locator tonesfor people with visual disabilities.
Pedestrian Intervals andSignal Phases
2003 MUTCD Section 4E.10
The pedestrian clearance time shouldbe sufficient enough to allow a cross-ing pedestrian,who left the curb orshoulder during the WALKING PER-SON signal indication,to travel at awalking speed of 4 ft.per second tomake it
to at least the far side ofthe traveled way or to a medianof sufficient width for pedestri-ans to wait.
Where pedestrians,who walk slower than 4 ft.per sec-ond or use wheelchairs,routinely usethe crosswalk,a walking speed of lessthan 4 ft.per second should be con-sidered in determining the pedestrianclearance time.
The Three E-Approach:Engineering Alone is NotSufficient
Improved pedestrian safety at inter-sections requires coordination amongpublic authorities,professional engi-neers,media,education experts andvehicle designers to reduce both thenumber and severity of pedestriancollisions.Pedestrian safety cannot beimproved by traffic engineering alone;it is a partnership between the driver,pedestrians,parents of young chil-dren,schools,police departments andothers.From an enforcement perspective,weneed to ensure motorist compliancewith traffic control devices,postedspeeds and pedestrian safety laws.Pedestrians need to understand andobey intersection traffic control.Pedestrians need to make themselvesmore visible during evening and night-time hours.One way to do this is towear reflective clothing and acces-sories.All partners need to develop asustained and comprehensive inter-section safety public awareness cam-paign that reaches both motoristsand pedestrians.
Federal HighwayAdministration'sPedestrian SafetyCampaign Planner
This toolkit contains outreach mate-rials that states and local jurisdictionsand communities can customize and