Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Byzantium: The Long Revival, 815-976

Byzantium: The Long Revival, 815-976

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,640 |Likes:
Published by vasilefs
From a low-point in the 700s, Byzantium or "the Christian Roman Empire of the Greeks" slowly began to recover. The loss of Sicily and Crete to the Muslims was offset by slow but sure economic growth, a revival of learning and a build-up of the armed forces. Slowly the Empire went on the offensive, at first in the Aegean and the Levant against the Muslim powers, and then in its near north-west against the Bulgarians. By AD 976 the medeval Roman Empire was nearing the peak of its power and prosperity.
From a low-point in the 700s, Byzantium or "the Christian Roman Empire of the Greeks" slowly began to recover. The loss of Sicily and Crete to the Muslims was offset by slow but sure economic growth, a revival of learning and a build-up of the armed forces. Slowly the Empire went on the offensive, at first in the Aegean and the Levant against the Muslim powers, and then in its near north-west against the Bulgarians. By AD 976 the medeval Roman Empire was nearing the peak of its power and prosperity.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: vasilefs on Sep 27, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





An encyclopaedic chronology,with several long digressionson the ‘East Roman’ army and navy
byMichael O’RourkeCanberra, AustraliaSeptember 2010
List of Roman (Byzantine) Emperors
813-20: Leon or Leo V ‘the Armenian’820-29: Mikhael or Michael II ‘the Amorian’829-42: Theophilos842-56: Theodora, regent for Michael III842-67: Mikhael or Michael III867-86: Basileios or Basil I ‘the Macedonian’886-912: Leon or Leo VI ‘the Wise’912-13: Alexandros or Alexander913-14: Nikolaos or Nicholas Mysticus (patriarch), regent for ConstantineVII914-20: Zoë Carbonopsina, empress-regent for Constantine VII920-44: Romanos II Lecepenus, senior co-emperor944-59: Konstantinos or Constantine VII ‘the Porphyrogenitus’, ruling alone959-63: Romanos III963:Theophano, empress-regent for Basil II963-69: Nikephoros II Phocas, senior co-emperor969-76: Ioannes or John I Kourkouas, called ‘Tzimiskes’, senior co-emperor976+: Basileios or Basil II ‘the Bulgar-Slayer’, ruling aloneFor an account of the size, equipment and tactics of the Byzantine
, seeafter the entry for AD 919 and again after 944. The
isdiscussed at length after 841-50 and briefly in or after the entriesfor 882, 889, 911 (maritime expedition against Crete), 919, and AD961 (further expedition against Crete).
In 815 the whole African side of the Mediterranean was Muslim, while the northernside belonged to Christendom. Taking the former first, we find the Umayyad dynasty ruling most of present-day Spain and all of our Portugal, with the Mahgreb divided between the Idrisidsin Morocco-Algeria and the Aghlabids ruling Greater Tunisia (Arabic “Ifriqiya”). Thegiant Abbasid Caliphate with its capital at Baghdad ruled the whole Levant fromeastern Libya to Egypt, Syria, Armenia, Iraq and Persia.The larger part of the northern shore of the Mediterranean was controlled by“Rômania”—‘
the Christian Roman Empire of the Greeks
’ —known to us as
Byzantium. On the west, the Frankish Empire ruled our southern France, part of the Balearics, Corsica, and northern Italy as far as Old Rome. Eastwards fromSicily and southern Italy, as we have said, all the northern Meditterranean wasByzantine – as far as Cyprus.On paper the Frankish Empire—Pamplona to Salzburg and Hamburg to Rome*—looked to be the second strongest power in the Mediterranean basin after theAbbasids in 815 (cf 
Times Atlas
1994: 61). In practice it was less organised andmore loosely governed and so weaker than Byzantium. The Franks had a smallfleet that allowed them to hold the Balearics and Corsica, but in the westernreaches of Mediterranean as in the eastern [see e.g. under 825-28 and 880], themain naval contest was between Byzantium and the several Muslim states. Venicetoo had a substantial fleet of its own (see under 840 and 887).(*) Except for Rome, with perhaps 20,000 people, in 815 these places were just the village seats of bishops or hamlet-fortresses of no importance; Iam simply using them to quickly illustrate physical size of the Frankish-ruled realms.Let us now proceed on a tour across the Roman (Byzantine) Empire, from west toeast – from Sardinia and Sicily to Asia Minor and Armenia:(a) Italy: Sardinia was still nominally Byzantine but in practice independent (cf theentry in this chronology for c.840; also 864). The Franks dominated Corsica and NItaly, with the Lombard principality of Benevento lodged between Frankish N Italyand Byzantine S Italy, including Sicily: see 827.(b) The Adriatic and the Balkans: Nominally Byzantine Venice and Dalmatia wereseparated from Byzantine inner Macedonia by Frankish-dominated Slovenia-Croatia (to give the region its modern name)
and the Slavic tribes of ‘Bosnia-Serbia’ - as we may anachronistically call the region. There was as yet no Serbianstate in 814. Nominally the pagan Serbs came under Byzantine suzerainty but inpractice they were autonomous. Outer Macedonia and SE Illyria were likewiseruled by Slavic chiefs (and in certain districts: Romance-speaking Vlachs).The Empire ruled Crete, almost all of present-day Greece, Albania, and Thrace,while the Bulgarians (still pagans) controlled the eastern two-thirds of present-dayBulgaria and an even larger territory north of the lower Danube. Until 814-16 (seeunder 816), the Bulgarian-Byzantine frontier lay just beyond Adrianople (modernEdirne).GO HERE for a map showing the Bulgarian-Byzantine frontier:http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Bulgaria_krum_map_pl.jpg.(c) Anatolia remained the empire’s heartland. In the east, the frontier with theAbbasids was the Taurus Mountains, with nearly all of Cilicia under Muslim rule.Cyprus paid taxes to both the Empire and the Caliphate.
Byzantine-Venetian edict against trade with the Arabs. The emperor and the dogetried to prohibit Venetian merchants from engaging in trade (in slaves and othergoods) with the Arabs, in order that the empire should maintain control over thenorth-south commercial routes (Rotman p.72). See 876.
r. Omurtag, Bulgarian khan. With the death of Krum, the boundary between theBulgarian khanate and the empire once again became the Balkans Mountains,which is to say: Byzantium regained all of Thrace. A 30-year treaty (816-46) wasagreed, and from 817 it mainly held, being breached only once: see 836-37 (Vine1991: 100, 106). Cf 815.814/15: In the Caliphate: The first substantial reference to the use of 
so-called "slave" soldiers, mercenaries from east of the Aral Sea. They formed a small but effective guard for Ma'mun's brother, the futurecaliph Mu'tasim. Cf 833. – And the Patzinak Turks [Pechenegs, Kipchaks]pushed west onto the Ukrainian steppe (as we know it) during the 800s.
From 814/15
Iconoclasm again.
SL [date according to Symeon the Logothete]: Leo Vpersecutes the iconophiles 815-820.The veneration of icons had been restored under Empress Irene, 780-802. Thiswas formalised at a Church Council held in 787.But now in 815 Leo calls a
Council/General Synod at Constantinople whichreintroduces "moderate iconoclasm".Publication of the ‘Second Edict of Iconoclasm’. Leo deposed the patriarchNicephorus, inaugurating the SECOND ICONOCLASTIC PERIOD (815-843). Cf 818-20.Soon after Easter, 1 April 815, a Synod under the authority of the new Patriarch Theodotus Melissenus was held. It repudiated the Ecumenical Council of Nicaea of 787 and recognised the
of the iconoclast council of 754. It stated that it didnot regard the icons as idols, but nevertheless
ordered their destruction.
“For you see that all the emperors who have acknowledged and worshippedicons met their death either in exile or in war …” (Leo V, quoted by Mango in Rice1965: 110).
Outer Thrace: The Bulgarians first conquered Philippopolis, present-day Plovdiv, in815 and named it
. (Wikipedia, 2009: - The name
first appears inthe 15th century.) See 816.
Chronicles: It has long been the consensus of Byzantinists that no reliablenarrative source exists for the second period of iconoclasm (815-843). The historyof this period has therefore been written by choosing among the differentaccounts of four chroniclers of the mid-tenth century, none of whom is consideredwholly reliable: [1] Symeon the Logothete [SL], [2] Joseph Genesius, [3] Theophanes Continuatus, and [4] the Pseudo-Symeon. But Treadgold (1979) hasproposed that the Chronicle of Symeon has practically the value of acontemporary source for 813-845, and should be adopted as our principal guide inwriting the history of the second iconoclastic period.
Part of Dalmatia was ruled by the new Croat kingdom. See 822.
1. Exchange of prisoners between the Eastern Muslims and the East RomanEmpire; Mas’udi does not specify the numbers involved (Toynbee 1973: 390).2. Campaign against the Bulgarians under Khan Omurtag. Leo leads his army tothe destroyed town of Mesembria on the Black Sea coast: he lures the Khan'sarmy into an ambush and wins a victory.As we noted earlier, a 30-year peace was agreed. The Bulgarians kept most of the western Thracian conquests of Irene and Nicephorus but withdrew from someof northern Thrace. The Romanic-Bulgarian Treaty marks off a border-line thatcame to be called the "
Great Fence of Bulgaria
" or “Great Fence of Thrace”(Greek:
megale souda,
‘Great Fence/Stronghold/Rampart’; today known as the
a word borrowed from Turkish). A no-man’s-land about 60 km wide wasmarked out from Develtus west to Mt Haemus {the Balkan Range near Satra

Activity (29)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Kostas Renios liked this
Romila Dan liked this
M.Cristina Carile added this note
Tarsan embassy
Ioannis Arkoulis liked this
felipe-restum liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->