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Rehabilitation of Hala Sultan Tekke Mosque Part 3

Rehabilitation of Hala Sultan Tekke Mosque Part 3

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09/27/2010

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CENTRE FOR CONSERVATION & PRESERVATIONOF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
85, Ramsis Street, Cairo, 11511 EGYPT - P.O. Box: 764 Cairo
 
- Egypt
 
Tel.: (202) 5776122 / 5752495 Fax.: (202) 5748872E-MAIL ADDRESS: info@ ciah.biz http:// www.ciah.bizAssociated institute, ICOMOS Associated institute , Organization of Islamic Capitals & Cities
 
29
Another effect that can lead to an increased water content in porous building materials iscapillary rise. This can be still more pronounced if soluble salts are present. These mayoriginate in the ground water but can also be a result of air pollution.
Sulphates of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium can cause especially severe damage.
Turbulence and temperature:
 
Wind
Solar radiation
Particles, Aerosols and Gases
Air pollution is composed of particles, aerosols and gases.
Air pollution components of natural origin:Sand., Salt, Biological Material, Some Gases.
Most gases are mainly products of industrial activities:Heating, Traffic.
Most fuels, except natural gas, contain sulphur, sulphurdioxide SO2 is one of the main gaseous by-products of combustion.
Gaseous components of air pollution are:Oxides of Sulphur and Nitrogen, Ozone, HydrocarbonsHydrogen Sulphide, Organic and Inorganic Substances
Acid gases, SO2, SO3 and NOx. Ozone and Electrolytes,such as sodium chloride can affect building stonesindirectly through their corrosive action on metal parts.
 Biological Factors:
The biodeterioration of stone materials in the open airdepends on a number of prerequisites:
Biological components distributed by aerialdispersal.
The ability of biological components to adhere andattach to the stone surface.
Water, temperature and nutrient conditions whichpermit their growth and colonization of the stonesurface.
The formation of mineral-dissolving growthproducts.
 
CENTRE FOR CONSERVATION & PRESERVATIONOF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
85, Ramsis Street, Cairo, 11511 EGYPT - P.O. Box: 764 Cairo
 
- Egypt
 
Tel.: (202) 5776122 / 5752495 Fax.: (202) 5748872E-MAIL ADDRESS: info@ ciah.biz http:// www.ciah.bizAssociated institute, ICOMOS Associated institute , Organization of Islamic Capitals & Cities
 
30
The biological components “air-spora” include:
Bacteria.
Spores of Fungi and Mosses.
Some Terrestrial and Epiphytic Algae.
Fragments of Lichen. Pollen-Free or Associatedwith Non-Biological Particles.
Surface:
 
The term "surface" is generally used to describea solid/gas or solid/liquid interface.
Particles and molecules that accumulate at theinterface can serve as nutrients for theorganisms.
Attachment:
The attachment, is irreversible, time-dependentand characterized by the appearance of polymeric adhesives. They may be preformedand/or the result of de novo synthesis, morepronounced with time. Produced in moresubstantial amounts they are described (in thecase of bacteria) as networks of fibrils.
 
Contrary to the heterotrophs, the autotrophs donot require any supply of organic substances.They can all utilize CO, as a carbon source.Concerning the energy source, some of themare photo-autotrophs, utilizing sunlight. Othersare chemo-autotrophs (chemo-litotrophs)deriving their energy from oxidation of inorganic substances.
Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are photo-autotrophs and include the most self-sufficientorganisms that now exist.
They can build both CO2 and N2 into organicmolecules. They are free-living or constitute thealgal component which, in symbiosis with afungal partner, composes a lichen.
Mosses and true algae also are photo-autotrophs.
 
 
CENTRE FOR CONSERVATION & PRESERVATIONOF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
85, Ramsis Street, Cairo, 11511 EGYPT - P.O. Box: 764 Cairo
 
- Egypt
 
Tel.: (202) 5776122 / 5752495 Fax.: (202) 5748872E-MAIL ADDRESS: info@ ciah.biz http:// www.ciah.bizAssociated institute, ICOMOS Associated institute , Organization of Islamic Capitals & Cities
 
31
Survey For Causes Of Deterioration
 
Condensation Processes
In daytime, fixation of pollutants on stone will be greatest on the coolest parts of the exposedsurface. The presence of temperature (Thermophoresis) and humidity gradients near the surfacecan also promote or hinder the deposition of particles. When condensation is taking place at thestone surface, both particles and gas fluxes will be increased. The nearby air is cleaned as mostpollutants pass into the liquid, including liquid and solid particles suspended in air (acid gases,aerosol dust and carbonaceous particles).
The presence of moisture at the stone surface isvery dangerous, mainly for two reasons:
 
1. The pollutant concentration is very high sincethe amount of water involved is small.2. These highly concentrated pollutant solutionsand their reaction products can remain forlong time on the surface because they are notwashed away.
Dissolution by Rainwater
Heavy rainstorms have been suggested as an importantcontributor to the deterioration of the because it wasobserved that during a severe storm, erosion channelson the surface of the monument guided water to faultsand cracks and then into the body of the structure.
Annular rainfall averaged about 326.9 millimetres ayear
Deterioration Of Masonry Materials
 
Composition, Structure and Properties
Chemical Composition
 

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