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Table Of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
ES 1. AEROSOLS AND THEIR CLIMATE EFFECTS
ES 1.1. Atmospheric Aerosols
ES 1.2. Radiative Forcing of Aerosols
ES 1.3. Reducing Uncertainties in Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates
ES 2. MEASUREMENT-BASED ASSESSMENT OF AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCING
ES 2.1. Assessments of Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing
ES 2.2. Assessments of Aerosol Indi- rect Radiative Forcing
ES 3. MODEL ESTIMATED AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCING AND ITS CLIMATE IMPACT
ES 3.1. The Importance of Aerosol Ra- diative Forcing in Climate Models
ES 3.2. Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols
ES 3.3. Aerosol Effects on Clouds
ES 3.4. Impacts of Aerosols on Climate Model Simulations
ES 4. THE WAY FORWARD
1.1 Description of Atmospheric Aerosols
1.2 The Climate Effects of Aerosols
1.3. Reducing Uncertainties in Aerosol- Climate Forcing Estimates
1.4 Contents of This Report
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Overview of Aerosol Measurement Capabilities
2.2.1. SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING
2.2.2. FOCUSED FIELD CAMPAIGNS
2.2.5. GROUND-BASED REMOTE SENSING MEASUREMENT NETWORKS
2.2.6. SYNERGY OF MEASUREMENTS AND MODEL SIMULATIONS
2.3. Assessments of Aerosol Charac- terization and Climate Forcing
2.3.1. THE USE OF MEASURED AEROSOL PROPERTIES TO IMPROVE MODELS
2.4. Outstanding Issues
2.5. Concluding Remarks
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Modeling of Atmospheric Aerosols
3.2.1. ESTIMATES OF EMISSIONS
3.3. Calculating Aerosol Direct Radia- tive Forcing
3.4. Calculating Aerosol Indirect Forcing
3.4.1. AEROSOL EFFECTS ON CLOUDS
3.4.2. MODEL EXPERIMENTS
3.4.3. ADDITIONAL AEROSOL INFLUENCES
3.4.4. HIGH RESOLUTION MODELING
3.5. Aerosol in the Climate Models
3.5.1. AEROSOL IN THE IPCC AR4 CLIMATE MODEL SIMULATIONS
3.6.1. SURFACE TEMPERATURE CHANGE
3.6.2. IMPLICATIONS FOR CLIMATE MODEL SIMULATIONS
3.7. OUTSTANDING ISSUES
3.8 Conclusions
4.1. Major Research Needs
4.2. Priorities
4.2.1. MEASUREMENTS
4.2.2. MODELING
4.2.3. EMISSIONS
4.3. Concluding Remarks
GLOSSARY AND ACRONYMS
REFERENCES
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Some People Still Believe Chem Trails Are Just a Conspiracy Theory

Some People Still Believe Chem Trails Are Just a Conspiracy Theory

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,919|Likes:
Published by Hunab Ku

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Hunab Ku on Sep 27, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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