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On Naked Timelike Singularities of Noncompact Matter Sources

On Naked Timelike Singularities of Noncompact Matter Sources

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Published by Kathryn Wilson
Appeared in Physics Letts B, 665, no. 5 (2008) 384-387
Appeared in Physics Letts B, 665, no. 5 (2008) 384-387

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Published by: Kathryn Wilson on Jul 05, 2008
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On Timelike Naked Singularitiesassociated with Noncompact MatterSources
Carlos CastroCenter for Theoretical Studies of Physical SystemsClark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA. 30314, castro@ctps.cau.eduApril 2008
Abstract
We show the existence of 
timelike
naked singularities which are
not
hidden by a horizon and which are associated to spherically symmet-ric (noncompact) matter sources extending from
r
= 0 to
r
=
. Our
asymptotically flat
solutions do represent observable
timelike
naked sin-gularities where the scalar curvature
R
and volume mass density
ρ
(
r
) areboth
singular
at
r
= 0. To finalize we explain the Finsler geometricorigins behind the matter field configuration obeying the weak energyconditions and that leads to a timelike naked singularity.
Long ago Penrose [1] proposed the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture (CCC)stating that singularities which form in a gravitational collapse and consistentwith Einstein’s [2] field equations should never be visible to an outside observeror they should be hidden inside a horizon. Recently, Deshingkar [3] studiedsingularities which can form in a spherically symmetric gravitational collapseof a general matter field obeying the weak energy condition. He showed thatno energy can reach an outside observer from a null naked singularity. Thatmeans they will not be a serious threat to the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture(CCC). For timelike naked singularities, where only the central shell gets sin-gular, the redshift is always finite and they can in principle, carry energy to afaraway observer. Hence for proving or disproving CCC the study of timelikenaked singularities is more important. The results of [3] were very general andindependent of the initial data and the form of the matter.The purpose of this letter is to show the existence of 
timelike
naked singular-ities which are
not
hidden by a horizon and which are associated to sphericallysymmetric
noncompact
matter sources extending for
r
= 0 to
r
=
. Our
asymptotically flat
solutions do represent observable
timelike
naked singu-larities where the scalar curvature
R
and volume mass density
ρ
(
r
) are both
singular
at
r
= 0 while the metric remains finite at
r
= 0. The Einstein1
 
field equations [2] associated with the signature (+
,
,
,
) in natural units¯
h
=
c
= 1 are
G
00
=
R
00
12
g
00
R
= 8
πG
00
;
R
ij
12
g
ij
R
= 8
πG
ij
(1)
ij
are the stress energy tensor elements comprised of a radial and tangentialpressures similar to a self-gravitating
anisotropic
fluid studied by [8]
ρ
(
r
) =
 p
r
(
r
)
, p
tangential
=
p
θ
=
p
φ
.
(2)The components of the mixed stress energy tensor
1
are
µµ
= (
ρ
(
r
)
,
 p
r
,
 p
θ
,
 p
φ
).The radial pressure
p
r
=
ρ
is negative, pointing radially inwards towards thecenter
r
= 0 consistent with the self-gravitating picture of the droplet. Thecontinuity equation when
p
r
(
r
) =
ρ
(
r
) yields
r
rr
= 0
p
θ
=
p
φ
=
ρ
(
r
)
r
2
dr.
(3)which is the relationship between the density and pressure as shown in particularby [8]. Instead of choosing a delta function point mass source [13] or a smeareddelta function given by the Gaussian [8]
ρ
(
r
) =
o
e
r
2
/
4
σ
2
(4
πσ
2
)
3
/
2
lim
σ
0
e
r
2
/
4
σ
2
(4
πσ
2
)
3
/
2
δ
(
r
)4
πr
2
.
(4)we will choose instead the following volume mass density density distributionassociated with a
noncompact
source extending from
r
= 0 to
r
=
ρ
(
r,σ
) =
o
4
πr
2
3
σ
3
21
r
4
[ 1 + (
σ/r
)
3
]
3
/
2
;
σ >
0
.
(5)which belongs to the most general two-parameter family of volume mass densitydistributions
ρ
(
r,σ,κ
) =
o
4
πr
2
κ σ
κ
21
r
κ
+1
[ 1 + (
σ/r
)
κ
]
3
/
2
;
κ >
2
.
(6)parametrized by the length scale
σ
and the exponent
κ >
2. At the end of thiswork we shall explain the Finsler geometric origins behind the matter configu-ration of eq-(5) that leads to timelike naked singularities.From eqs-(2,3,5) one learns that the weak energy conditions
ρ
0 and
ρ
+
 p
i
0 (
i
= 1
,
2
,
3) are satisfied due to
dρ/dr <
0; whereas the strong energyconditions
ρ
+
i
p
i
0 are only satisfied in the region
r
σ/
2, but not inthe central core region
r < σ/
2. While on the other hand, the dominant energyconditions
ρ
|
 p
i
|
are satisfied for the values of 
r
σ
(5
/
4)
1
/
3
but violated forthe values of 
r > σ
(5
/
4)
1
/
3
. Thus, the matter field configuration studied hereobeys only the weak energy conditions. One may be inclined to question the
1
we have a change of sign from [8]
2
 
physical validity of having a non-compact matter source extending all the wayto infinity (mass density and pressure tending to zero as
r
) , obeying theweak energy conditions, and having a singular density and pressure at
r
= 0. Bythe same token, one might have been inclined to question the physical validityof the Hilbert-Schwarzschild solution in 1916 (that led to the concept of blackhole) based on an infinitely compact point-mass source (of zero extension) witha singular mass density distribution at
r
= 0. For this reason, we should notdiscard the model studied here.The total mass enclosed by the noncompact shell between
r
= 0 and
r
=
is given by the integral of 
ρ
(
r,σ
) 4
πr
2
:
o
3
σ
3
2
 
0
1
r
4
[ 1 + (
σ/r
)
3
]
3
/
2
dr
=
o
[1
 
1 + (
σ/r
)
3
]
r
=
r
=0
=
o
(7)Despite that
ρ
(
r
= 0) =
, the quantity 4
πr
2
ρ
(
r
)
r
1
/
2
0 as
r
0, andthis is the reason why the integral (7) converges to the finite value
o
whichcan be seen as the net mass being delocalized all over space, rather than beingconcentrated at the point
r
= 0 in the delta function source case, or smearedby the Gaussian distribution as in the case studied by [8] such that
ρ
and thescalar curvature
R
were
finite
at the origin
r
= 0; whereas in our case bothexpressions
diverge
at
r
= 0.The metric line element which solves Einstein’ s equations, due to the pres-ence of the volume mass density
ρ
(
r
) distribution and pressure given by eqs-(2,3), can be obtained by a direct application of Birkoff’s theorem by evaluatingthe (variable) mass
(
r,σ
) enclosed by a shell of radius
r
(
ds
)
2
= (1
2
G
(
r,σ
)
r
) (
dt
)
2
(1
2
G
(
r,σ
)
r
)
1
(
dr
)
2
r
2
(
d
Ω)
2
.
(8)where the solid angle infinitesimal element is (
d
Ω)
2
= (
)
2
+
sin
2
(
φ
)(
)
2
. Themass enclosed in a spherical shell of radius
r
due to the density distribution
ρ
(
r,σ
) is
(
r,σ
) =
o
3
σ
3
2
 
r
0
1
r
4
[ 1 + (
σ/r
)
3
]
3
/
2
dr
=
o
[1
 
1 + (
σ/r
)
3
]
.
(9)We can see that the metric component
g
tt
= 1
2
GM 
o
r
 
1 + (
σ/r
)
3
.
(10)obeys the condition
g
tt
(
r
= 0) =
g
tt
(
r
=
) = 1 . The metric given by eq-(8) isasymptotically flat and is
not
singular at
r
= 0, however the scalar curvature
R
is
singular
at
r
= 0 as we will show next. The scalar curvature can be obtainedfrom Einstein’s equations by taking the trace of 8
πG
(
µν
) leading to3

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