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History, U.S. Honors - CH 10-1 Lecture

History, U.S. Honors - CH 10-1 Lecture

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Published by Marty Irwin
U.S. History - Classroom Lecture: Becoming a World Power. This lecture introduces the student to imperialism of the late 1800s - early 1900s, and describes the birth of a modern U.S. Navy.
U.S. History - Classroom Lecture: Becoming a World Power. This lecture introduces the student to imperialism of the late 1800s - early 1900s, and describes the birth of a modern U.S. Navy.

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Published by: Marty Irwin on Jul 05, 2008
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LectureHonors U.S. HistoryName:Mr. IrwinWeek 15Period:
Chapter 10BECOMING A WORLD POWERChapter 10-1 The Pressure to ExpandKey Terms:imperialism
The policy of extending a nation’s authority over other countries by economic,political, or military means.The policy or principle of having and extending control over the territory of other nations; creating or maintaining an empire for the purpose of extending the influenceof the country engaged in imperialism.
nationalism
a devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation.Nationalism often describes a condition in which a nation’s people believethemselves, their ideals, and their goals to be superior to those of other nations.
annex
To join a new territory to an existing country.
banana republic
A slang term used to describe Central American nations that were being exploitedduring the U.S. period of imperialism of the late 1800s – early 1900s.
Background:
As America approached the twentieth century, it had, in a very short period of time,undergone tremendous change. The Industrial Revolution had helped the U.S.transform from a predominantly agricultural nation, to a nation diversified in farming,ranching, business, technology, and international trade. With industry, came jobopportunities, and as the result, cities developed near industrial areas where work wasplentiful. The invention of the steam engine was applied to transportation, in the form of railroad engines. This adaptation of technology motivated railroad companies to buildthousands of miles of track, which served to link the country together. It also helpedestablish an American national identity that was rooted in capitalism and consumerism.Upon having accomplished Manifest Destiny, two questions seem to have developed inthe minds of many Americans:
1.
“How will the U.S. continue to grow and prosper?”www.mirwin.weebly.compage
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2.
“What should the U.S. do to develop and protect its economic interests?”Imperialism is the thread that links these two questions.In the mid to late 1800s, the major powers of Europe sought to increase their wealththrough the practice of imperialism. By the late 1800s, much of Africa and Asia wasunder the control of European nations, with Great Britain leading the pack (France,Russia and Germany, being the other major European imperialistic powers). Anexample of the vastness of the British Empire at its peak was the quote that:“The sun never sets on the British Empire.”In the late 1800s early 1900s, U.S. businessmen and the companies that theyrepresented, went abroad to Central America, and to islands in the Atlantic, and in thePacific, to set up plantations and other types of profitable business ventures. Aroundthe same time, U.S. government officials observed that the major powers of Europe hadsuccessfully profited from their imperialistic colonies. As the result, speeches anddebates took place in our congress about the need to expand American influencebeyond its borders. Many people thought that the time was right for the U.S. to followthe European lead, and that we too should grow through imperialism.
4 Factors That Accounted for the Spread of 19
th
Century Imperialism:Economic Factors:
The growth of industry in Europe created an increased need for natural resourcessuch asrubber and petroleum, which came primarily from underdeveloped regions of theworld.Manufacturing nations required new markets in which to sell their manufacturedgoods.
Nationalistic Factors:
An increase in nationalism among the major European powers created a climate of competition in which each of the major powers sought to grow and become stronger than its neighbors.
Military Factors:
Expanses in military technology produced armies and navies that were superior tothose inAfrica and Asia.The growing European navies sought bases around the world that could be used for refuelingand repair stations.www.mirwin.weebly.compage
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Humanitarian Factors:
Some imperialistic activity was encouraged by people and organizations of stronghumanitarian and religious convictions.There was a belief that it was a moral duty to spread elements of Western civilizationsuch asreligion, medicine, food, law and government.
The U.S. Acquires Alaska:
In 1867, Secretary of State William H. Seward arranged for the purchase of Alaska fromRussia. This was viewed as a protective move, as Seward believed that by having U.S.territory on two sides of Canada, Great British might abandon its interests in Canada(thinking that Great Britain would not want to have another military conflict with theU.S.).Detractors of the Alaska purchase thought that Seward was proposing to buy aworthless frozen land, as the result, the Alaska purchase was sometimes referred to as“Seward’s folly.”
U.S. Influence in the Far East:
In 1853, Commodore Matthew C. Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay and opened traderelations with Japan. By the 1860s, the U.S. and several European nations had signedtreaties for expanded trade with China.Like the Europeans, the U.S. needed fueling stations for its navy. As the result, the U.S.annexed the (uninhabited) Pacific island of Midway, in 1867.
Hawaii Sugar:
In 1875, the U.S. signed a treaty with the monarchy of Hawaii. Under this treaty, Hawaiiwould be allowed to send its sugar to the U.S. without having a tariff imposed upon itsproduct. In return, Hawaii agreed that it would not sell or lease any of its territory to aforeign power.
Grant Enforces the Monroe Doctrine:
In 1870, President Ulysses S. Grant announced that under the Monroe Doctrine, theU.S. would protect the islands of the Caribbean from being transferred to Europeanpowers.
Supply and Demand Considered:
By the late 1800s, the U.S. had developed into a strong industrial economy. Americawas producing goods at the highest rate ever. Unfortunately, domestic consumption of these goods could not keep up with what was being produced. According to the Law of Supply and Demand, an excess supply causes prices to fall. Falling prices are not goodfor the businesses that produce products. As a way to increase demand for U.S. madegoods, America looked to foreign markets.www.mirwin.weebly.compage
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