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The Main Actors and Their Role in the Bolivar Ian Revolution in Venezuela

The Main Actors and Their Role in the Bolivar Ian Revolution in Venezuela

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The main Actors and their Role in the Bolivarian Revolution
in Venezuela
The main Actors and their Role in the Bolivarian Revolution
in Venezuela

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Antonio Javier Aveledo on Sep 28, 2010
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02/01/2013

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Carl von OssietzkyUniversit¨at Oldenburg
Magisterstudiengang
PolitikwissenschaftenWirtschaftswissenschaften
MAGISTERARBEIT
Title: The main Actors and their Role in the Bolivarian Revolutionin Venezuela
vorgelegt von:
Franziska W¨ockelKurt-Huber-Straße 1326129 Oldenburgfranziska.woeckel@web.de
Betreuender Gutachter:
apl. Prof. Dr. Fernando Mires
Zweite Gutachterin:
Dr. Lydia Potts
Oldenburg, 2. Juli 2008
 
Table of Contents
2.1. Background Facts about Venezuela. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.2. Discovery and Colonization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.2.1. The Native Population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.2.2. Colonization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.2.3. Spain’s Policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.3. Rebellion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.4. Wars of Independence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.4.1. The First Venezuelan Republic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.4.2. The Second Venezuelan Republic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.4.3. The Third Republic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82.5. Venezuela’s Independence - Dictatorship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.5.1. aez Dictatorship (1830 - 1847). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.5.2. Turmoil and Unrest (1847 - 1870). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.5.3. Guzm´an’s Dictatorship (1870 - 1888). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.5.4. Crisis and Turmoil again (1888 - 1908). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.5.5. The Beginning of the Petroleum Era under G´omez. . . . . . . . 112.6. Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.1. Transition to Democracy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143.1.1. The Trienio 1945-1948. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153.1.2. Opposition forms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153.1.3. Marcos P´erez’s Dictatorship 1948 - 1958. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163.2. Democracy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173.2.1. President Betancourt 1959 - 1964 and Guerrilla Formation. . . . 173.2.2. Leoni’s Presidency 1964-1969. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183.2.3. Rafael Caldera’s first Presidency 1969-1974. . . . . . . . . . . . . 193.2.4. Carlos Andr´es P´erez’s first Presidency 1974 - 1979. . . . . . . . . 193.2.5. Camp´ın’s Presidency 1979 - 1984. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20ii
 
Table of Contents 
3.2.6. Lusinchi’s Presidency 1984 - 1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213.3. The new Crisis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213.3.1. Carlos Andr´es P´erez’s second Presidency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223.3.2. El Caracazo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.3.3. The Coups of 1992 and the Aftermath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.3.4. Caldera’s second Presidency 1994 - 1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253.4. Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1. Young Years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274.2. Ch´avez’s Movement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284.2.1. The Movimiento Bolivariano Revolucionario-200. . . . . . . . . . 284.2.2. The 1992 Coup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304.2.3. The Structure of the Movement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304.3. Campaign and Election. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314.4. Ch´avez’s Policy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334.4.1. Economic Policy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334.4.2. Oil policy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354.4.3. Trade Agreements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384.4.4. Social Policy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404.5. Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.1. The Constitutional Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.2. Main Changes in the new Constitution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465.2.1. Women’s Rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475.2.2. Law and Justice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475.2.3. Economic, Social, Educational, Cultural and Human Rights. . . 485.2.4. The Right to Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485.2.5. Political Parties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485.2.6. Referenda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495.2.7. Indigenous Rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495.2.8. Environmental Rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495.2.9. Five Powers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505.2.10. Civil Disobedience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505.3. Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.1. Media in Venezuela. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53iii

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