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Table Of Contents

1.1.6 Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry
1.1.7 Hybrid Inductively Coupled Plasma Techniques
1.1.9 Pre-concentration Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Techniques
1.1.10 Microprocessors
1.11 Autosamplers
1.1.13 Visible and UV Spectroscopy
1.1.14 Polarography and Voltammetry
1.1.15 Ion Chromatography [43]
1.2 Non-destructive Methods
1.2.1 X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
1.2.2 Neutron Activation Analysis
References
2 Non-metallic Elements
2.1 Instrumentation: Furnace Combustion Methods
2.1.1 Halogens
2.1.2 Sulfur
2.1.3 Total Sulfur/Total Halogen
2.1.4 Total Bound Nitrogen
2.1.5 Nitrogen, Carbon, and Sulfur
2.1.6 Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen
2.1.7 Total Organic Carbon
2.2 Oxygen Flask Combustion Methods
2.2.1 Total Halogens
2.2.2 Sulfur
2.2.3 Oxygen Flask Combustion: Ion Chromatography
2.2.4 Instrumentation
2.2.5 Applications
2.3 Acid and Solid Digestions of Polymers
2.3.1 Chlorine
2.3.2 Nitrogen
2.3.3 Phosphorus
2.3.4 Silica
2.4 X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
2.5 Antec 9000 Nitrogen/Sulfur Analyser
3 Functional Groups and Polymer Structure
3.1 Infrared and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
3.1.1 Instrumentation
3.1.2 Applications
3.2 Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Raman Spectroscopy
3.2.1 Theory
3.2.2 Instrumentation
3.2.3 Applications
3.3 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
3.3.1 Instrumentation
3.3.2 Applications
3.4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
3.4.1 Instrumentation
3.4.2 Applications
3.5 Proton Magnetic Resonance (PMR) Spectroscopy
3.5.1 Instrumentation
3.5.2 Applications
3.6 Reaction Gas Chromatography
3.6.1 Instrumentation
3.6.2 Applications
3.7 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography
3.7.1 Theory
3.7.2 Instrumentation
3.7.3 Applications
3.8 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
3.8.1 Instrumentation
3.8.2 Applications
3.9 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography–Fourier Transform NMR Spectroscopy
3.10 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
3.11 Mass Spectrometric Techniques
3.11.1 Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)
3.11.2 XPS
3.11.3 Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS)
3.11.4 Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry
3.11.5 MALDI-MS
3.11.6 Radio Frequency Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry
3.12 Microthermal Analysis
3.13 Atomic Force Microscopy
3.13.1 Applications
4 Examination of Polymer Surfaces and Defects
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Electron Microprobe X-ray Emission Spectrometry
4.2.1 Applications
4.3 NMR Micro-imaging
4.4 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
4.4.1 Instrumentation
4.4.2 Applications
4.5 Diffusion Reflectance FT-IR Spectroscopy (Spectra-Tech)
4.12.1 Electron Microscopy and Inverse Gas Chromatography
4.12.2 Supersonic Jet Spectrometry
4.13 ToF SIMS
4.14 Laser-Induced Photoelectron Ionisation with Laser Desorption
4.15 Atomic Force Microscopy
4.16 Microthermal Analysis
5 Volatiles and Water
5.1 Gas Chromatography
5.1.1 Instrumentation
5.1.2 Applications
5.2 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
5.2.1 Instrumentation
5.2.2 Applications
5.3 Polarography
5.3.1 Instrumentation
5.3.2 Applications
5.4 Headspace Analysis
5.4.1 Instrumentation
5.4.2 Applications
5.5 Headspace Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
5.5.1 Instrumentation
5.6 Purge and Trap Analysis
5.6.1 Instrumentation
6 Fingerprinting Techniques
6.2 Pyrolysis Techniques
6.2.1 Conventional Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography
6.2.2 Laser Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography
6.2.3 Photolysis Gas Chromatography
6.2.4 Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry
6.3 Infrared Spectroscopy
6.3.1 Potassium Bromide Discs [12]
6.4.1 Theory
6.4.2 Instrumentation
6.4.3 Applications
6.5 Raman Spectroscopy
7 Polymer Additives
7.1 IR and Raman Spectroscopy
7.1.1 Instrumentation
7.1.2 Applications
7.2 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
7.2.1 Instrumentation
7.2.2 Applications
7.3.1 Instrumentation
7.3.2 Applications
7.5 Mass Spectrometry
7.5.1 Instrumentation
7.5.2 Applications
7.6 Gas Chromatography
7.6.1 Instrumentation
7.6.2 Applications
7.7 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
7.7.1 Theory
7.7.2 Instrumentation
7.7.3 Applications
7.8 Complementary Techniques
7.8.1 HPLC with Mass Spectrometry
7.8.2 HPLC with IR Spectroscopy
7.9 Ion Chromatography
7.10 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
7.10.1 Theory
7.10.2 Instrumentation
7.10.3 Applications
7.11 Thin-Layer Chromatography
7.11.1 Theory
7.11.2 Applications
7.12 Polarography
7.12.1 Instrumentation
7.12.2 Applications
7.13 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
7.14 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
7.15 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
7.16 X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
7.17 Solvent Extraction Systems
8 Polymer Fractionation and Molecular Weight
8.1 Introduction
8.2 High-Performance GPC and SEC
8.2.1 Theory
8.2.2 Applications
8.3 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
8.3.1 Instrumentation
8.3.2 Applications
8.4 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
8.4.1 Theory
8.4.2 Instrumentation
8.4.3 Applications
8.5 Gas Chromatography
8.6 Thin-Layer Chromatography
8.7 NMR Spectroscopy
8.8 Osmometry
8.9 Light Scattering Methods
8.10 Viscometry
8.11 Ultracentrifugation
8.12 Field Desorption Mass Spectrometry
8.13 Capillary Electrophoresis
8.14 Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
8.15 Ion Exchange Chromatography
8.16 Liquid Adsorption Chromatography
8.18 MALDI-MS
8.19 Thermal Field Flow Fractionation
8.20 Desorption Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry
8.21 Grazing Emission X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
9 Thermal and Chemical Stability
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Theory
9.2.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis
9.2.2 Differential Thermal Analysis
9.2.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
9.2.4 Thermal Volatilisation Analysis
9.2.5 Evolved Gas Analysis
9.3 Instrumentation
9.3.1 Instrumentation for TGA, DTA, and DSC
9.3.2 Instrumentation for TVA and EGA
9.4 Applications
9.4.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis
9.4.2 TGA–FT-IR Spectroscopy and DSC–FT-IR Spectroscopy
9.4.3 Differential Thermal Analysis
9.4.4 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
9.4.5 Thermal Volatilisation Analysis
9.4.7 Mass Spectrometric Methods
9.5 Examination of Thermal Stability by a Variety of Techniques
9.6 Heat Stability of Polypropylene
10 Monitoring of Resin Cure
10.1 Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis
10.1.1 Theory
10.1.2 Instrumentation
10.1.3 Applications
10.2 Dielectric Thermal Analysis
10.2.1 Theory
10.2.2 Instrumentation
10.2.3 Applications
10.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
10.4 Fibre Optic Sensor to Monitor Resin Cure
11 Oxidative Stability
11.1 Theory and Instrumentation
11.2 Applications
11.2.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis
11.2.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
11.2.3 Evolved Gas Analysis
11.2.4 Infrared Spectroscopy of Oxidised Polymers
11.2.5 Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
11.2.7 Imaging Chemiluminescence
12 Examination of Photopolymers
12.1 Differential Photocalorimetry
12.1.1 Theory
12.1.2 Instrumentation
12.1.3 Applications
12.2 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
12.3 Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
12.4 Gas Chromatography-Based Methods
13 Glass Transition and Other Transitions
13.1 Glass Transition
13.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
13.2.1 Theory
13.2.2 Instrumentation
13.2.3 Applications
13.3 Thermomechanical Analysis
13.3.1 Theory
13.3.2 Instrumentation
13.3.3 Applications
13.4 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
13.4.1 Applications
13.7 Dielectric Thermal Analysis
13.8.5 Infrared Spectroscopy
14 Crystallinity
14.1 Theory
14.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
14.2.1 Theory
14.2.2 Instrumentation
14.2.3 Applications
14.3 Differential Thermal Analysis
14.3.1 Theory
14.3.2 Applications
14.4 X-ray Powder Diffraction
14.4.1 Applications
14.5 Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering/Diffraction
14.5.1 Applications
14.6.1 Theory
14.6.2 Applications
14.7 Static and Dynamic Light Scattering
14.7.1 Applications
15.1.1 Theory
15.1.2 Instrumentation
15.1.3 Applications
15.2 Thermomechanical Analysis
15.2.1 Applications
15.3 Dielectric Thermal Analysis
15.3.1 Theory
15.3.2 Instrumentation
15.3.3 Applications
16 Thermal Properties
16.11 Specific Heat
16.13 Ageing in Air
17 Flammability Testing
17.1 Combustion Testing and Rating of Plastics
17.1.1 Introduction
17.1.2 Mining Applications
17.1.3 Electrical Applications
17.1.4 Transportation Applications
17.1.5 Furniture and Furnishing Applications
17.1.6 Construction Material Applications
17.1.7 Other Fire-Related Factors
17.2 Instrumentation
17.3 Examination of Combustible Polymer Products
17.4 Oxygen Consumption Cone Calorimetry
17.5 Laser Pyrolysis–Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
17.6 Pyrolysis–Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
17.7 Thermogravimetric Analysis
18.1 Mechanical Properties of Polymers
18.1.1 Load-Bearing Characteristics of Polymers
18.1.2 Impact Strength Characteristics of Polymers
18.1.3 Measurement of Mechanical Properties in Polymers
18.1.4 Properties of Polymer Film and Pipe
18.1.5 Polymer Powders
18.1.6 Physical Testing of Rubbers and Elastomers
18.2 Electrical Properties
18.2.1 Volume and Surface Resistivity
18.2.2 Dielectric and Dissipation Factor
18.2.3 Dielectric Strength (Dielectric Rigidity)
18.2.4 Surface Arc Resistance
18.2.5 Tracking Resistance
18.3 Optical Properties and Light Stability
18.3.1 Stress Optical Analysis
18.3.2 Light Stability of Polyolefins
18.3.3 Effect of Pigments
18.3.4 Effect of Pigments in Combination with a UV Stabiliser
18.3.5 Effect of Carbon Black
18.3.6 Effect of Window Glass
18.3.7 Effect of Sunlight on Impact Strength
18.3.8 Effect of Thickness
18.3.9 Effect of Stress During Exposure
18.3.10 Effect of Molecular Weight
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Particle Size Characteristics of Polymer Powders
19.2.2 Laser Particle Size Analysers
19.2.4 Sedimentation
19.2.5 Other Instrumentation
20.1 Polymer Additives
20.2 Extraction Tests
Appendix 1
Instrument Suppliers
Thermal Properties of Polymers
Mechanical Properties of Polymers
Electrical Properties of Polymers
Optical Properties of Polymers
Physical Testing of Rubbers and Elastomers
Physical Testing of Polymer Powders
Polymer Flammability Properties
Addresses of Suppliers
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Index
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Polymer Reference Book

Polymer Reference Book

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Published by mkminhas

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Published by: mkminhas on Sep 29, 2010
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