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Imaging Research4 Mahmudia

Imaging Research4 Mahmudia

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Published by Academecian group
Electrical Imaging:
2D Resistivity Tomography as a tool for Groundwater Studies at Mahmudia Village, West Sulaimani City, Iraqi Kurdistan Region
Bakhtiar Kader Aziz*
University of Sulaimani, College of Science, Dept. of Geology
2005 4A
Electrical Imaging:
2D Resistivity Tomography as a tool for Groundwater Studies at Mahmudia Village, West Sulaimani City, Iraqi Kurdistan Region
Bakhtiar Kader Aziz*
University of Sulaimani, College of Science, Dept. of Geology
2005 4A

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Published by: Academecian group on Jul 07, 2008
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Electrical Imaging:
2D Resistivity Tomography as a tool for Groundwater Studies atMahmudia Village, West Sulaimani City, Iraqi Kurdistan Region
 Bakhtiar Kader Aziz*
University of Sulaimani, College of Science, Dept. of Geology
Electrical Imaging (EI) is a geophysical method, developed over the past several years that provide a two or three dimensional resistivity model of the subsurface. EI can be very effective in providing information onthe distribution of aquifers, aquitard, impermeable rocks, soil-bedrock interface topography, fracture zone,fault and voids. This technique is used for the first time in Iraq in Mahmudia village, west of Sulaimani City.Five traverses were taken; more than 4000 readings were recorded using Wenner configuration with rollalong technique. The data inversion was carried out by RES2DINV program using both finite difference andfinite element mathematical methods. Two aquifers of different geological properties have been detected; oneof them within the recent sediments while the other within the limestone beds of Sinjar Formation. Theseaquifers can be regarded as an excellent water resource for providing sufficient groundwater to the area for domestic and agricultural purposes.
Electrical Imaging, Resistivity Tomography, and Groundwater 
The resistivity surveying method hasundergone dramatic changes over the lastdecade. A major improvement since theearly 1990 ´s has the development of 2Dimaging surveys [1] that provides a morerealistic model of the subsurface even incomplex geological area. As we know, dueto anisotropy of the earth material, theresistivity changes in x, y and z direction,so the greatest limitation of 1D resistivitysounding method is that it does not takeinto account horizontal changes in thesubsurface resistivity. A more accuratemodel of the subsurface is a two-dimensional (2D) model where theresistivity changes in the vertical directionas well as in the horizontal direction alongthe survey line. The 3D resistivity surveyand its interpretation model should be evenmore accurate, however at the present time,2D survey are the most practical economiccompromise between obtaining veryaccurate results and keeping the surveycosts down [2]. Typical 1D resistivitysounding surveys usually involve about 10to 20 readings, while 2D imaging surveysinvolve about 500 to 1500 measurements.In comparison, 3D survey usually involvesseveral thousand measurements.Several researches have been carried out inthe world using 2D and 3D techniques suchas: in mineral exploration [3; 4 and 5]. Inthe field of hydrogeological application,engineering and environmental studiesthere are [6; 7; 8; 9; 10and 11]. In Iraq thereis no any previous study yet in this field, sothe study under consideration is consideredas a first attempt. The author selected anarea located 25 km west of Sulaimani Citythat is surrounding Mahmudia village, Fig(1). Fortunately, there is a drilled well, of 120m depth, located 650m NE of thevillage, which was very helpful incomparison of results obtained from 2Dinterpretation. Mahmudia village is bounded by latitude (35° 31`-35° 32`N) andlongitude (45° 11`-45° 13`E). Geologically,the area is located on a plain flat area of recent sediments, bounded from NE and SE by high ridge of Sinjar limestone FormationFig (1). The dip of the limestone beds is 27°degree in the direction of 220°, its strike issimilar to the orientation of the structuralfeature or the area. At NW of the villageexactly beneath Sinjar cliffs black Shale beds of Kolosh Formation was croppingout. From the structural point of view thestudied area is located within the core of themajor Bazian anticline that extends in NW-SE direction forming the Bazian Basin.Inside this basin many large blocks of Sinjar Formation were scattered forminghigh uplifted areas. No surface water existsin the area except two weak springs, whichhave a discharge equal to 1.8 L/S. Theydried up during last few drought years.
A new modern computerized type oresistivity
meter was used in this study. Thecomplete system consists of Syscal Jr switch-72 (IRIS) resistivity meter, portablecomputer, switching unit (link box), sixreels of multi-core cables with take-out atelectrode points, 72 electrodes and their  jointing wire, car battery and chargers. Themulti-core cables are of reverse type andhave take-out string equal to 10m (a=10m).Syscal Jr switch-72 is a new all-in-onemultimode resistivity imaging system; it isdesigned to perform automatically pre-defined sets of resistivity measurementswith roll-along capability. The six strings of cable with 12-electrode take-out areconnected together on the back of theresistivity meter. The EI systemautomatically energizes different electrodes(4-electrode per each reading) to measureapparent resistivities at new horizontallocation and depth. A series of 72 stainlesssteel electrodes are driven 10 to 25 cm intothe ground at a fixed interval equal to 10m.The total length of the spread was 720m.Before going to the field, the sequence of datum points of measurement was prepared by using ELECTRII software. For thecurrent study 812 datum points per eachsounding have been plotted. The type of array used and other optimum field parameters such as amount of current &voltage, No. of minimum and maximumstacks, time and quality factor are testedand selected depending on a previousfieldwork in the area. These parameterswere normally entered into a text file,which could be read by a computer  program. After reading the control file thecomputer program then automaticallyselects the appropriate electrodes for eachmeasurement and then stored in thecomputer. To obtain a good 2D picture of the subsurface and to get the best results,the measurements in the field carried out ina systematic manner so that, as far as possible, all the possible measurements arerecorded. This will affect the quality of interpretation model obtained from theinversion of the apparent resistivitymeasurements [12].The choice of the best array for the fieldsurvey depends on the type of the structureto be mapped, the sensitivity of theresistivity meter and the background noiselevel. Wenner array technique was selected,for the five traverses, due to its strongsignal strength and its sensitivity to verticalchanges in the subsurface resistivity. TheWenner array is good in resolving verticalchanges (i.e. horizontal structures), which isthe geological characteristic of thesubsurface area. Only for the traverses closeto the Sinjar Formation out crops the roll
along technique was used. Detail about thistechnique is given in fig (2).
To plot the field data, the pseudosectioncontouring method is normally used; thehorizontal location of the points that placedat the mid-point of the set of electrodes wasused to make that measurement. Thevertical location of the plotting point is placed at a distance, which is proportionalto the separation between the electrodes.Another method, has been used in the present study, is to place the vertical position of the plotting point at the mediandepth of investigation, or pseudo depth of the electrode array has been used Fig (3). The pesudosection of the sounding givesapproximate picture of the true resistivitydistribution and it is also considered as aninitial guide for further quantitativeinterpretation. Other useful practicalapplication of these pseudosections is for  picking and removing bad apparentresistivity. Such bad measurement usuallystands out as points (spots) with high or lowvalues.
The inversion of resistivity data isinherently non-unique. To obtained a modethat is closest to the real geology, otheavailable information should be included inthe inversion process in the form oconstrains, [13]. The inversion of thesounding is carried out by RES2DINV,which is a computer program that willautomatically determine a two-dimensionalresistivity of model the subsurface for thedata obtained from electrical imagingsurveys. The 2D model used by theinversion program consists of a number of rectangular blocks as shown in Fig (4).The arrangement of the blocks is looselytied to the distribution of the data points inthe pseudosection. The programautomatically chooses the optimuminversion parameters for a data set.However, the inversion parameters aremodified in this study depending on thegeological situation of the field. Geologicaland structural survey of the area as well asgeological column of the well are includedconstraining the inversion process.Another important factor is the quality of the field data; good quality data usuallyshow a smooth variation of apparentresistivity values in the pseudosection. Allthe soundings give very good quality, littleappearance of irregularity and spots thatshow high or low resistivity thansurrounding have been seen.Bad data points are removed from the dataset to avoid their effect in the process of 

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