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History Notes

History Notes

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Published by: Vernon on Sep 29, 2010
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10/31/2012

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Done by Song Gil Seob
History EOY Preparation
RUSSIAPre-Civil War
Bolshevi
k’
s Strengths Weaknesses of Provisional GovernmentRefusal to Compromise
 
Mensheviks helped the Provisional Govt.
 
Bolsheviks never wavered
o
 
Disassociated from policies
o
 
Repressed by
enemy
(Provisional Govt.)Leadership of Lenin
 
Returned to lead Bolsheviks- revolution,unpopularity of Provisional Govt.
 
Promises
o
 
Land, Peace, Bread
o
 
Immediate Land Redistribution
o
 
End WWI
o
 
Eliminate Hunger w/ CommunismGeneral Kornilov Affair
 
Bolshevik
s help enlisted
o
 
Railway Workers- Stop trains, militarycannot come in
o
 
Propagandists- spread propaganda thatKornilov is the enemy of the revolution
 
No Blood, No Violence
 
Outcomes:
o
 
Increased Support
o
 
Rearmament
o
 
Release of Prisoners
o
 
Bolsheviks can now take down theProvisional Govt. which is easier to takedown than the military
Problems of Democratic Reform
 
Prisoners freed & Revolutionaries returned- includesLenin who would eventually overthrow the govt.
 
Freedom of Press- easier for Bolsheviks to spreadinformation
 
Freedom of Assembly- People going on strikes oftenImage Tarnished
 
No Serious Reforms
o
 
Delayed democratic elections due to WWI(37% of people were deployed, not very goodfor democracy)- people viewed this as anattempt to hold onto power longer
o
 
No Land Reforms- no redistribution of land
 
People in Provisional Govt. were theones with land previously
o
 
Appalling economic record- food shortages,unemployment, debt
o
 
Still in WWI
 
Resources are continuously drained,promises to allies- owe money, willhave to sign surrender treaty(money+land)General Kornilov Affair (Commander-in-chief)
 
Thought that there were revolutionaries in St.Petersburg
 
He tried to enter the city with the army to stop them
 
Provisional Govt. though that they were starting amilitary coup
 
Arrest of Generals- military no longer under Govt.
 
Done by Song Gil Seob
Russian Civil War (1917-1923)
 
Parties
o
 
Red Army: Communist Govt. + Volunteer-Based men + Strengthened by Cheka
o
 
White Army: Mix of interested parties of Bolshevik
s downfall (Poor monarchists,Mensheviks, Rich, Bourgeoisie)
o
 
Green Army: Ukraine Nationalist Movement- less significant
o
 
Black Army: Rival of Green Army, Anarchist (no Govt.)- less significant
 
Reasons for Foreign Involvement
o
 
Russian Withdrawal
 
The Allies tried to get the old powers back to support them in war as theBolsheviks defaulted on foreign loans (ignored completely, blamed on theprevious rulers)
o
 
Russo-German Alliance
 
Against the Allies
o
 
Spread of Communism
 
Govt. has to be overthrown
 
Outcomes:
o
 
Bolshevik Victory
o
 
Massive Casualties- 15 million people died (1 million red, ½ million white, 7-8 millionwartime casualties, 5 million from famine)
o
 
Economic devastation
 
Factories, Bridges, Mines, Machines: all gone
 
Dropped
to
1/7 of Industrial Production
 
Output of factories dropped
to
20%
 
Cotton- dropped
to
5%
 
Iron- dropped
to
2%
Factors Strengths of the Reds Weakness of the WhitesLeadership
Strict unity of command- Division of Responsibility
 
Lenin: Political Leader
 
Leon Trotsky: War Commissar/MilitaryLeader
o
 
I/C of co-ordinating the militarycampaign
 
Clear Division- prevented: duplication of effort, waste of manpower andresources, avoided confusion and chaosPolitically Diverse
 
The White Army was not a unifiedforce. There were many groups:Aristocrats, Middle-class,Mensheviks, people from conqueredregions who had joined in to achieveindependence from Russian rule
 
Each group had their own aims andideals but they were drawn togetherby political expediency of ridding theBolsheviks
 
Done by Song Gil SeobAble Leadership
 
Trotsky was a brilliant thinker andspeaker
o
 
Used Railways to transporttroops and supplies
o
 
Bolshevik Army enlarged to 5million men
o
 
Enlisted Tsa
r’
s ex-officers-experience in war, held theirfamilies ransom to make themfight
 
The leaders of the various groupswere independent and headstrong. Itwas difficult for them to co-ordinatetheir war effort against the Reds,given the clashes in personalities andaims
 
Thus, the Whites did not have asingle, unified leadership and thisadversely affected their campaign
GeographicalContext
Strategic Geography
 
The Reds controlled the central area thatwas:
o
 
Most populous: reservoir of soldiers
o
 
Industries: placed on war-timefooting producing weapons
o
 
Railways- transport troopsPeripheral Areas
 
The White Army had difficulty co-ordinating their war effort. They haddifficulty in: Moving troops &Communication
 
White advantage was the outlyingregions which were the food-producing areas= supplied with food
o
 
Bolsheviks overcame theirfood shortage through grainrequistion
WartimeStrategies
War Communism
 
The whole economy was under thecontrol of the Govt.
o
 
Industries: Weapons, mobiliseresources
o
 
Requisition of Food: Ask thepeasants, even if they say no,they still take the food
 
5 million died fromfamine
o
 
No Private trade: Everything wasto go through the govt.
Others
Popular Support
 
Bolsheviks were seen to be patriotic inthe eyes of the people
 
Bolsheviks capitalised on this by claimingto be fighting against the Whites indefence of the Russian Motherland
 
This strong message was not lost on thepeople who gave it their supportDependent
 
The White Army was aided byforeign, democratic countries(financial, weapons, personnel)Elitist
 
The Aristocrats represented the oldorder and Tsarist Rule
 
They were very closely related to theTsar
 
If the Whites won: signal a return tothe old order?
o
 
Many peasants feared this

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