A large number of products, for example palm oil, must be processed directlyafter harvesting in order to prevent spoilage. This leads to very harsh conditions forthe plantations which are often located in inhospitable areas close to the Equator.Since harvesting is a seasonal business, the installed machines must be able toreadily cope with these burdens on production and the difficult climatic conditions.Oil can not only be extracted from plants, but also from marine animals suchas whales, herring or the liver of other fish. This oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids.However, it is not sold commercially as a pure fish oil of waltran for use as edible oil.For this reason this will be not mentioned any further.
Types of edible oil
Commercial edible oils come from one specific plant or are a mixture of several plant oils. If oils have a specific plant name, they must stem from the pureunmixed oil of this plant. Mixed oils are called table oil, edible oil or vegetable oil.Mixed oils are mostly sold under a brand name. References to the utilized plant oilsare only permissible if their type and proportion are shown on the label. Mixed oils are normally cheaper and more heat resistant than oils from asingle plant. They can be easily used for all kitchen processing methods such asfrying, baking or deep drying.
The best known edible oil
>Cottonseed oil>Dietary edible oil>Thistle oil>Peanut fat>Linseed oil>Maized oil>Rapeseed oil>Saflor oil>Sesame oil>Sunflower oil>Special oils>Wheatgerm oil Edible oils can be produced either through cold processing (up to 40 °C) or hot
pressing with extraction from oil seeds or fruits. The fruits and seeds from which the oil is extracted (oil fruits) are first cleanedand then crushed in rollers. The mush created during this process is then normallyheated. The addition of chemical solvents finally "washes" the oil out of the heatedmush, thus producing the raw oil. The raw oil contains unwanted substances which make it cloudy and spoil it,and may have a negative effect on taste. These substances include plant residues,sludge, slime and free fatty acids. In order to separate these substances from the oil,it is refined. During refining, different chemical and mechanical processes are used toclean, de-lime, de-acidify and de-color the raw oil and free it from unwanted odors. The edible oil thus produced is stable, which means that no solid constituents settleduring storage. Refined oil is also clear and light, and ha a much more neutral tasteand smell than untreated raw oil. Refining has no adverse effect on the valuablepolyunsaturated fatty acids. Refined oils are suitable for the preparation of warmmeals in the kitchen, like frying.