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os notes

os notes

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Published by: Gaurav on Sep 29, 2010
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10/05/2010

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1
Applied Operating System ConceptsSilberschatz, Galvin, and Gagne
©
19991.1
Module 4: Processes
Process Concept
Process Scheduling
Operation on Processes
Cooperating Processes
Threads
First Programming Assignment
Applied Operating System ConceptsSilberschatz, Galvin, and Gagne
©
19991.2
Process Concept
An operating system executes variety ofprograms:
 –Batch system –  jobs –Time-shared systems – user programs
Textbook uses the terms
 job 
 and 
process 
.
Process 
 – 
a program in execution; process execution must progress in sequential fashion 
.
A process includes program counter, stack, datasection
Applied Operating System ConceptsSilberschatz, Galvin, and Gagne
©
19991.3
Simple Two-State Process Model
NotRunningRunningProcessorEnterDispatchPauseExit(a) State transition diagramEnterQueueDispatchExitPause(a) Queuing diagram
 
2
Applied Operating System ConceptsSilberschatz, Galvin, and Gagne
©
19991.4
Dispatcher
Program that moves the processor from oneprocess to another
Prevents a single process from monopolizingprocessor time
Applied Operating System ConceptsSilberschatz, Galvin, and Gagne
©
19991.5
5 State Process State
As a process executes, it changes
state 
 – 
New 
: The process is being created. – 
Running 
: Instructions are being executed. – 
Waiting or blocked 
: The process iswaiting for some event to occur. – 
Ready 
: The process is waiting to beassigned to a process. – 
Terminate or Exit 
: The process hasfinished execution.
Applied Operating System ConceptsSilberschatz, Galvin, and Gagne
©
19991.6
Diagram of Process State
 
3
Applied Operating System ConceptsSilberschatz, Galvin, and Gagne
©
19991.7
OS Control Structures
MemoryI/OFile
Processes
Memory TablesI/O TablesFile Tables
Process 1Process 2
Process NPrimary TableProcess Image
User dataUser programSystem stackPCB
 
Applied Operating System ConceptsSilberschatz, Galvin, and Gagne
©
19991.8
Operating System ControlStructures
Schedules and dispatches processed forexecution by the processor
Allocates resources to processes
Responds to requests by user programs
Tables are constructed for each entity theoperating system manages
Applied Operating System ConceptsSilberschatz, Galvin, and Gagne
©
19991.9
Memory Tables
Allocation of main memory to processes
Allocation of secondary memory to processes
Protection attributes for access to sharedmemory regions
Information needed to manage virtual memory

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