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The Development of Metaphysics in Persia

The Development of Metaphysics in Persia

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Published by Shoaib
A contribution to the history of Muslim philosophy.

by

Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal
A contribution to the history of Muslim philosophy.

by

Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Shoaib on Sep 29, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/30/2010

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THE
 
DEVELOPMENT OFMETAPHYSICS
 
IN
 
P E R S I A
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY
OF
 MUSLIM PHILOSOPHY
BY
 
MUHAMMAD IQBAL
East Lansing, Mi.
 
H-Bahai
 
2001
(First Published: LondonLuzac and Company1908)
DEDICATION
TO
 PROFESSOR T. W. ARNOLD, M.A.
 
 My dear Mr. Arnold,This little book is the first fruit of thatliterary and philosophical training, which Ihave been receiving from you for the last tenyears, and as an expression of gratitude, Ibeg to dedicate it to your name. You havealways judged me liberally; I hope you will judge these pages in the same spirit.Your affectionate pupilIqbal
CONTENTS
 PART IPRE-ISLAMIC PERSIAN PHILOSOPHYPageChapter I Persian Dualism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
 
1. Zoroaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
 
2. Mani and Mazdak . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113. Retrospect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
17PART IIGREEK DUALISMChapter II Neo-Platonic Aristotelians of Persia . . . .. .211. Ibn Maskawaih . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
 
 2. Avicenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
 
Chapter III Islamic Rationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
 
1. Metaphysics of Rationalism-Materialism . . . 38
 
2. Contemporary Movements of Thought . . . . 45
 
3. Reaction against Rationalism - The Ash`arite . .
 
52Chapter IV Controversy between Realism andIdealism . . .65Chapter V Sufiism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
 
1. The origin and Quranic justification of Sufism . . 76
 
2. Aspects of Sufi Metaphysics . . . . . . . . 87A. Reality as Self-conscious Will . . . . . . 87B. Reality as Beauty . . . . . . . . . . .
 
88C. (1) Reality as Light . . . . . . . . . . 94(Return to Persian Dualism - Al-Ishraqi) ..(2) Reality as Thought - Al-Jili . . . . . 116Chapter VI Later Persian Thought . . . . . . . . . . 134Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147ixINTRODUCTIONThe most remarkable feature of the characterof the Persian people is their love of Metaphysical speculation. Yet the inquirerwho approaches the extant literature of Persia expecting to find any comprehensivesystems of thought, like those of Kapila or

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