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CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION
1.1 WHY POWER FACTOR CORRECTION?
1.2 VOLTAGE REGULATION
1.3 INCREASED SYSTEM LOSSES
1.4 POWER FACTOR PENALTY CHARGES
Equation 1: Billing Demand Adjustment for Power Factor Penalty
Equation 2: Power Factor
1.5 REDUCED SYSTEM CAPACITY
CHAPTER II - HOW CAPACITORS WORK
2.1 WHAT IS POWER FACTOR?
Figure 1: Real and Reactive Power Analogy
2.2 POWER AND POWER FACTOR RELATIONSHIPS
Figure 2: Power Triangle
2.3 POWER FACTOR EFFECTS
Figure 3: Current in Phase with Voltage
Figure 4: Current Lags the Voltage
Figure 5: Current Leads the Voltage
Table 1: Trigonometric Power Factor Conversion Table
2.4 LOAD FACTOR EFFECTS ON POWER FACTOR
2.5 CAPACITOR SIZING
Figure 9: Power Triangle for Example 3
Figure 10: Power Triangle for Example 4
2.6 VOLTAGE IMPROVEMENT WITH CAPACITORS
Equation 4: Capacitor Voltage Rise
Equation 5: Capacitor Current
Figure 12: Voltage Rise from 300 kVAR of Capacitors
Equation 6: Capacitor Percent Voltage Rise
Equation 7: Percent Voltage Rise Any Point from Source to Capacitor
Table 2: Conductor Impedance
CHAPTER III - CAPACITOR CONCERNS
3.1 OVERCURRENT AND OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
Equation 8: Capacitance
3.2 HARMONICS
Equation 9: Capacitor Impedance
CHAPTER IV - CAPACITOR SIZING, LOCATION, AND USE
4.3 CAPACITOR LOCATION
Figure 14: Power Triangle for Example 7
4.4 THREE-PHASE CAPACITOR BANKS
4.5 CAPACITOR INSTALLATION DRAWINGS
4.6 AUTOMATIC CAPACITOR SWITCHING
4.8 POWER FACTOR PENALTY RATES
4.9 CAPACITOR FUSING
Table 3: Capacitor Fusing Table
4.10 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
CHAPTER V - POWER SUPPLY CONSIDERATIONS
5.1 CAPACITOR EFFECTS ON SUBSTATIONS
Equation 10: Percent Voltage Improvement at Substation
5.2 EFFECTS OF DISTRIBUTION CAPACITORS ON TRANSMISSION LINES
5.3 INCREASE IN SUBSTATION CAPACITY
CHAPTER VI - CAPACITORS FOR INDUCTION MOTORS
6.1 SWITCHED PRIMARY SHUNT CAPACITOR BANKS
Equation 11: kVAR Output of Capacitors
6.2 SECONDARY CAPACITORS
6.3 SERIES PRIMARY CAPACITORS
Figure 17: Motor Starting with Series Capacitor
Equation 12: Voltage Drop
Equation 13: Voltge Drop with Series Capacitor
REFERENCES
EXHIBIT A: POWER FACTOR TABLE
Table 1: Power Factors
EXHIBIT B: CAPACITOR RATING TABLE FOR MOTORS
Table 5: Maximum Capacitor Rating for Motors/Capacitors Switched as a Unit
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05/22/2012

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