is the chemical mediator at most synapses inthe peripheral nervous system and between nerves and skeletalmuscles.
an enzyme which breaks acetylcholineinto acetate and choline so that the impulse does not continueindefinitely.
unites choline and acetate anddiffuses it back to the axon vesicles for future use.
the place at which a nervous impulse passes fromone neuron to another.
a small secretory vesicle that contains aneurotransmitter and is found inside the axon near the presynaptic membrane.
a substance which transmits nerveimpulse across a synapse.
neurotransmitter plays a critical role in the
control of movement
. It has a
stimulating effect on theheart
, the circulation, the rate of metabolism, and is able tomobilize many of the body's energy reserves,
controlcoordination and movement,
release chemicals that allow usto feel
(e.g., endorphins),- The major precursor of dopamine is the nonessential aminoacid
May lead to
May lead to
stimulates release of a hormone,
, which regulates the body clock andsleep, causes
blood vessels to constrict
or regulation of mood,
.- The major precursor of serotonin is
May lead to Depression
also known as
, is aneurotransmitter found in the sympathetic nervous system.The sympathetic nervous system
stimulates the heart
, bloodvessels, sweat glands, the large internal organs, and theadrenal medulla in the brain,
, and plays animportant regulatory role in
and learning,Arousal, energy, drive,
fight and flight response
The major precursors of NE and Epinephrine are
internal calm, sense of well being, feelings of euphoria, self-concept, physiologic pain management, psychological pain relief.The major precursor of Enkephalin are
is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter that acts through a negativefeedback system to block the transmission of a signal fromone cell to another. It is important for balancing the excitationin the brain. Benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety drugs) work on theGABA receptors of the brain, inducing a state of relaxation
The major precursor to GABA is
is believed to be associated with muscleactivation, learning, and memory.
May lead to
Alzheimer’s Disease6. Histamine
- is thought to influence arousal, attention andlearning. It is also released in response to an allergic reaction.
and is themost abundant chemical messenger in the brain. It is believedto be involved in learning and memory. Certain diseases (suchas Alzheimer’s disease) or brain injury (such as
cause too much glutamate
to accumulate. This can set thestage for
, a process that can lead to damage or death of the affected brain cells.
it functions in physiologic pain managementand has a calming effect. It is 200 times more powerful thanmorphine.
is an enzyme which inactivates
Reflexes can be classified in several ways. Clinically, they arefrequently classified according to the part affected.
Classification According to Structure Involved:1. Deep Tendon Reflexa. Tendon of Achilles Reflex-
ankle jerk is produced bytapping the tendon of Achilles, plantar flexion of the footoccurs.
b. Patellar Reflex-
knee jerk is produced by tapping thequadriceps femoris, just below the patella; it results in legextension.
2. Superficial Reflex