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THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM

INTRODUCTION

To superimpose something means to lay one thing on top of another. Thesuperposition theorem is a means by which we can solve circuits that have more than oneindependent voltage source. Each source is taken, one at a time, as if it were the only sourcein the circuit. All other source is replaced with their internal resistance. The superpositiontheorem will work for any number of sources as long as you are consistent in accounting for the direction of currents and the polarity of voltages.

AIM

1.

We able to apply the superposition theorem to linear circuits with more than onevoltage source.2.

We able to construct a circuit with two voltage sources, solve for the currents andvoltages throughout the circuit, and verify your computation by measurement.

MATERIALS

Resistors:One 4.7k, one 6.8k, one 10.0k

PROCEDURE

1.

Obtain the resistors listed in Table 11.1. Measure each resistor and record themeasured value in Table 11.1.2.

Construct the circuit shown in Figure 11.1. This circuit has two voltage sourcesconnected to a common reference ground.Figure 11.1

3

.

Remove the 10V source and place a jumper between the point¶s labeled C and D, asshown in figure 11.2. This jumper represents the internal resistance of the 10V power supply.4.

Compute the total resistance, R, seen by the +5.0V source. Then remove the +5.0Vsource and measure resistance between points A and B to confirm the calculation.Record the computed and measured values in table 11.2.5.

Use the source voltage, V, and the total resistance to compute the total current, I,from the +5.0V source. This current flow through R, so record it as I in table 11.

3

.Use the current divider rule to determine the currents in R² and R³. the current divider rule for I and I is:I² = I R and I³ = I R R + R R + RRecord all three currents as positive values in table 11.

3

. This will be assigneddirection of current flow. Mark the magnitude and direction of the current on figure11.

3

.6.

Use the currents computed in step 5 and the measured resistances to calculate theexpected voltage across each resistor of figure 11.

3

. Then connect the +5.0V power supply and measure the actual voltages present in this circuit. Record the computedand measured voltages in table 11.

3

. Because all currents in step 5 were considered

positive,

all voltages in this step are also

positive

7.

Remove the +5.0V source from the circuit and move the jumper from between pointC and D to between points A and B. compute the total resistance between point C andD. measure the resistance to confirm the calculation. Record the computed andmeasured resistance in table 11.2.8.

Compute the current through each resistor in figure 11.

3

. Note that the total currentflows through R and divides between R and R. Mark the magnitude and directionof the current on figure 11.

3

.

important:

record the current as a

positive

current if it isin the same direction as recorded in step 5 and as a

negative

current if it is in theopposite direction as in step 5. Record the computed currents in table 11.

3

.

9.

Use the current computed in step 8 and the measured resistances to compute thevoltage drops across each resistor. If the current through a resistor was a po

sitive

current, record the resistor¶s voltage as a

positive

voltage. If a current was a

negative

current, record the voltage as

negative

voltage. Then connect the +10V source, asillustrated in figure 11.

3

, measure, and record the voltages in table 11.

3

. Themeasured voltages should confirm the calculation.10.

Compute the algebraic sum of the currents and voltages listed in table 11.

3

. Thenreplaced the jumper between A and B with the +5.0V source, as shown in the originalcircuit in figure 11.1. Measure the voltage across each resistor in this circuit. Themeasured voltages should agree with the algebraic sums. Record the measured resultsin table 11.

3

.

RESULTS

ListedvalueMeasuredValueR1 4.7k 4.59kR2 6.8k 6.72kR

3

10.0k 9.87k

Table 11.1

Quantity Computed MeasuredStep 4 R (V operating alone) 8.75k 0.85kStep 7 R (V operating alone) 10k 9.86k

Table 11.2 Computed and measured resistances.

Step 4: R = R1 + R x R2 step 7: R2 + R x R1R + R2 R + R1= 4.7 + 10.0 (6.8) = 6.8 + 10.0(4.7)10.0

+ 6.8 10 + 4.7

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