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Test 1 - Study Guide PEDS Test1

Test 1 - Study Guide PEDS Test1

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Published by ANARZL2011
PEDS study guide
PEDS study guide

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Published by: ANARZL2011 on Oct 01, 2010
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 Study Guide Pediatrics Exam #1
Infant:Birth to 12 monthsToddler:1 to 3 yearsPre-School:3 to 5 yearsSchool Age:5 to 12 yearsAdolescence:13 to 19 years
General Pediatric Concepts
Use of Caring
: Knowing, Alternating Rhythms(when tointeract full-force and when to back off), Patience, Honesty,Trust, Humility, Hope and Courage
Atraumatic Care
– Concept of “Do No Harm” prevent psychological and physical distressDemonstrated by:
Prevent Separation from parent
Promote Control (in children as young as 3)
Minimize or prevent hurt or pain
Allow playtime for expression of fear and aggression
Respect Cultural differences
General Pediatric Concepts: 4-5 questions
Use of caring; Atraumatic care: What is it and howis it demonstrated by nurses in practice;Family-centered care: Promotion of it;Informed consent in pediatrics; Importance of CulturalCare in pediatrics
Atraumatic care
Most of what is done to children to cure illness and prolong life is traumatic, painful, upsetting, and frightening.
Health professionals must direct their attention to providing atraumatic care
3 principles provide the framework for atraumatic care:(1)Prevent or minimize the child’s separation from the family(2)Promote a sense of control(3)Prevent or minimize bodily injury and pain1
Atraumatic care: physical and psychological comfort?
Atraumatic care is concerned with any procedure performed on a child for the purpose of eliminating psychologic and physical stressor 
Psychological distress includes: anxiety, fear, anger, disappointment, sadness,shame, or guilt
Physical distress ranges from sleeplessness and immobilization to disturbingsensory stimuli such as pain, temperature extremes, loud noises, bright lights,or darkness
Ways a nurse can provide atraumatic care:
Fostering the parent- child relationship during hospitalization
Preparing the child before any unfamiliar treatment or procedure
Controlling pain
Allowing privacy
Providing play activities for expression of fear and aggressions
Providing choices if available
Respecting cultures
Care of Child in hospital:
 Preparing child for invasive procedures:
What is best re: atraumatic care? Trying to do no harm; preventand minimize seperation from parent; promote a sense of controlfor the child as young as 3 years old; prevent and minimize physical or psychological pain; allow child and parent to betogether as much as possible; allow child to make decision andchoices; prepare child before any unknown treatment or procedure;allow child privacy; allow child to play
What is the safest way to administer different types of medications to childrendepending on age and developemental level)?
when administering liquids especially to infants, administer in away to prevent aspiration (slowly, allowing the child to swallow)-do not add the medication to the formula;
when administering an IM shot, make sure that the needle is theapproprite length for the childs size and weight, know themedication that’s being given, the childs ability to assume therequired position safely, the amount and character of the drug.
when administering eye meds-have child lay supine or sitting, headextended, and looking up; pull down lower lid and place eye dropin conjunctiva2
when administering ear drops-for children 3 years and younger  pull the pinna down and back; in children older than 3 pull the pinna up and back.
Meeting the needs of children in pain: pharmacological vs. nonpharmacological approaches:
 Nonpharmacologic- prepare child for procedures; educate patientto procedure; build trust with child and parent, distractiontechniques, relaxation, guided imagery, positive self talk, thoughtstopping. *Nonpharmacological measures can supplement but not prevent pharmacologic measures.
Pharmacologic- administer analgesics;
Family-centered care
- incorporating into policy that thefamily is the constant in the child’s life while the servicesystem and support systems within those systems fluctuate.
Enabling and Empowerment
Key elements:
Facilitate family-professional collaboration at all levels of hospital,home and community care (individual child, program developmentand policy formation)
Exchange complete and unbiased information
Honor cultural diversity (ethnic, racial, spiritual, social, economic,educational, environmental and financial)
Recognize and respect different methods of coping
Encourage and facilitate family to family networking and support
Ensure that home, hospital and community service support systemsare flexible, accessible and comprehensive for diverse familyneeds
Appreciate families as families and children as children beyond theneeds of the health services
Family-centered care
Two basic concepts in family-centered care are
Enable by creating opportunities for all family members to display abilitiesand to acquire new ones to meet the needs of the child
Empowerment is the interaction between professionals and families sofamilies maintain a sense of control.3

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