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Vegetativne i Reproduktivne Karakteristike Sorte Sljive Cacanska Rodna u Oblasti Trojan

Vegetativne i Reproduktivne Karakteristike Sorte Sljive Cacanska Rodna u Oblasti Trojan

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At the world market, there is an unlimited demand for  plum fruits having the qualities of cv KystendilskaSinya Sliva. The fruits of cv ^a~anska Rodna have si-milar qualities, which maintains the interest of plumgrowers for it. Because of the wide presence of the plum pox disease and the impossibility to grow Kyus-tendilska Sliva, alternative cultivars are searched for,which are suitable for contemporary plum production(Dragoyski et al., 1990, 2002; Minev et al., 1995). Thegenetic traits of the plum cultivars exerted a decisiveinfluence on their biological and reproductive charac-teristics, but their expression also depends to a greatextent on the soil and climatic conditions of their gro-wing region (Iliev et al., 1977).Having this in mind, our objective was to study thevegetative and reproductive characteristics of the plumcultivar ^a~anska Rodna under the conditions of theTroyan region, the main plum-producing region of our country.
Material and Methods
The study was conducted in a plum collection planta-tion established in 1994 with the cultivars Stanley and^a~anska Rodna engrafted on rootstock Yellow Myro- balan. The trees were planted at 6/4
spacing and tra-ined by the freely growing system. The plantation slo- pe varies from 3 to 8°, which necessitates antierosionsodding of interrow spacing. The following characteri-stics were studied: vegetative – trunk section (
),height (
), average diameter (
and crown volume(
) of the trees (calculated by the formula
/ 12
), annual growth (average number of branches,
Vegetative and reproductive characteristics of plum cultivar^a~anska Rodnain Troyan region
Hristina Dinkova, Ivan Minev, Teodora Stoyanova
 Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, Troyan, Bulgaria E-mail:
Received 31 August, 2006; accepted 6 February, 2007Vo}arstvo, 41, 157–158 (2007) 41–44
 Journal of Pomology, 41, 157–158 (2007) 41–44
UDK: 634.1.22;632.1:3Originalan nau~ni rad
Original scientific paper 
Biological and morphological characteristics of the tree were studied, and a characterisation of thefruits was performed as well. The trees formed a moderately growing, widely open crown. The fertility was lav-ish. The fruits are blue in colour, oval-shaped, slightly flattened sidelong, with an attractive appearance. In theregion where they were studied, they ripened in mid-August, producing fruits with a mean weight of 29
. Thequality of the fruit was very good; the content of the sugars was 11.48%, the stone was weighing 1.4
and wasseparating. Another characteristic of the trees is that they were strongly infested by
 Plum pox virus
(PPV), andthe symptoms were visible on the leaves. The fruits, however, reached the picking ripeness without a deteriora-tion of the taste qualities and without showing any characteristic symptoms of the disease themselves. This cul-tivar was slightly infested by the late brown root, red leaf spots and shot hole.
Key words:
 plums, cultivars, fruit quality, diseases.
average length of 1 branch and total growth) measuredonce at the end of vegetation on previously markedtrees and reproductive – phenological calendar, yield,weight and size of 1 fruit and 1 stone and fruit qualiti-es (Nedev et al., 1979). The cultivar reaction to the fol-lowing economically more important diseases was ob-served: plum pox (
 Plum pox virus
), red leaf spots (
 Po-listigma rubrum
), rust (
 Puccinia pruni spinosae
), shothole (
Stigmina carpophila
) and brown fruit rot (
 Mo-nilinia fructigena
). The cultivar Stanley was used as acontrol. The plantation was at the beginning of quicklyincreasing fruiting and grown without irrigation. Theagricultural practices for its maintenance were appliedaccording to the generally adopted technology for  plum fruit production with reduced plant protectionagainst plum fruit borer 
(Hoplocampa minuta
and plum fruit worm
(Laspeyresia funebrana
). Thestudies were conducted according to the Methodologyfor studying the plant resources in fruit species (Nedevet al., 1979).
Results and Discussion
The major characteristics of the growth vigour aretrunk section and crown volume. The studied 8-year trees of cultivar ^a~anska Rodna had a trunk sectionof 104.28
. The tree sizes of this cultivar were re-latively smaller, as compared to Stanley (Tab. 1).
Tab. 2. Annual growth in 2003–2004
Godi{nji rast u periodu 2003–2004. god.
Average number Average lengthTotalCultivarof annual branchesof one branchgrowth
SortaProse~an brojProse~na du`inaUkupan jednogodi{njih gran~icajedne gran~iceporast (cm) (cm) ______________________________________________________ 
^a~anska Rodna25.217.56442.5Stanley - control23.020.88480.2
^a~anska Rodna is distinguished for a softer woodthan the other plum cultivars, including cv Stanley. Ne-vertheless in the years of observation no broken bran-ches under the weight of the fruit load were recorded.During the first fruiting years the yields of cv^a~anska Rodna were lower, as compared to cv Stan-ley, but at the age of 10 years on average 13.23% mo-re fruits per tree were obtained than the control (Tab.3). It was impressive that the wood productivity of thiscultivar was higher, as compared to cv Stanley, which
Tab. 1. Relevant parameters of 8-year trees
 Relevantni parametri osmogodi{njih stabala
AverageCrownTrunk sectiondiametervolumeCultivar 
 Povr{ina preseka
^a~anska Rodna104.283703189.79Stanley131.0640639916.91
They had an average height of 370
and an ave-rage diameter of 318
, so their crowns had a wide-oval shape. The crown volume was also relativelysmaller – by 35.26%, as compared to cv Stanley. Thatallowed using smaller planting spacing than those re-commended for cv Stanley, i.e. the cultivar is adaptedto the establishment of semi- and intensive plum plan-tations. The cultivar had moderate bud revival and branching of the annual growth, so the crowns wereloose. The number of annual branches of cv ^a~anskaRodna was greater than cv Stanley and their averagelength was smaller, hence the total growth of the stu-died cultivar was smaller than the control (Tab. 2).
Tab. 3. Yield of plum cultivars ^a~anska Rodna and Stanley for the period 2002–2004
 Prinos sorti ^a~anska rodna i Stenli u periodu 2002–2004. god.
 ______________________________________________________ Year ^a~anska RodnaStanley
 ______________________________________________________ 200233.00.2832.0756.00.4182.76200338.00.3643.3346.00.2752.12200480.40.7717.0571.00.5424.03
yield151.4– – 173.0– 
was evident in the yields per square centimetre of trunk and per cubic metre of crowns.The fruits reached picking maturity in the third ten-day period of August, 2–3 days before those of cv Stan-ley. Their skin is dark-blue coloured. They are oval-shaped, slightly flattened on the sides. The abdominalsuture is on the surface. The fruit flesh is greenish-whi-tish, tender, a little sour, sweet, juicy, with an aroma.The freestone is 1,4
in weight. The fruit is 29,7
inweight and is not inferior to Stanley in size (Tab. 4).
Tab. 4. Average size, weight of fruit and ripening time
 Prose~na veli~ina, masa ploda i vreme zrenja
Stalk lengthRipeningCultivarHeightWidthThickness
^a~anskaRodna43.933.237.216.929.72030. 08.Stanley44.733.634.815.334.825. 0805. 09.
In years characterized by frequent rainfalls duringthe period of fruit maturity there were cracks of thefruit skin and fruit flesh in a number of recognized cul-tivars, but similar damages to cv ^a~anska Rodna we-re not observed.The content of total sugars in fresh fruits was10.70% and those of inverted sugar and saccharosewere 7.82 and 2.74%, respectively (Tab. 5).Analyzing the data of this study, it was found thatthe index of attack by rust
(Puccinia pruni spinosae)
on cv ^a~anska Rodna (0.84%) had the same value asthat measured in the control treatment with cv Stanley.In both varieties the differences were significant. Thestudied cultivar showed low susceptibility to shot hole
(Stigmina carpophila)
(0.25%) (Tab. 6).When grown near to trees infected with
 Plum poxvirus
, cv ^a~anska Rodna is susceptible to the disease.The leaf symptoms were characteristic, very pronoun-ced and covered the whole tree crown. The fruits hadnot the characteristic concavities of the disease and re-ached picking maturity without dropping and decrea-sing their palatability.
The studies showed that cv ^a~anska Rodna found su-itable soil and climatic conditions for growing in theTroyan region. The trees had optimum growth and al-lowed obtaining yields of about 2000
. Thecrowns had smaller size than cv Stanley and could be planted more densely.The fruits reached picking maturity on 20–30 Au-gust. The cultivar deserves attention for its tolerance toeconomically important fungal diseases in plum. Thereaction to the
 Plum pox virus
allows its successfulgrowing in regions with PPVinfection.
Dragoiski K., Minev I., Mondeshka P., Dinkova H., Mihovska B.(1990): Work to PPVin Research Institute of Mountain Stoc-kbreeding and Agriculture Troian. Plant Scence, 4: 10–15.Dragoiski K., Dinkova H., Minev I. (2002): Rate of PPVinfectionof some plum cultivars depending on the rootstock and manage-ment systems. Acta Horticulturae, 577: 263–268.Iliev I., Vitanov M., Yoncheva M., Belyakov V. (1977): Plum. Publ.Hristo G. Danov, Plovdiv, pp. 3–55.Minev I., Dragoiski K. (1995): Interspecific hybrds of genus
with a hide field resistance to
 Plum pox virus
. Plant Scence, 4:42–43. Nedev N., Grigorov Y., Baev H., Serafimov S., Strandzhev A., Ka-vardzhikov L., Lazarov K., Nikolov N., Dzhouvinov V., PopovaL., Slavov N., Iliev P., Stoyanov D., Kunev I., Krinkov H., Vis-hanska Y., Topchiyska M. (1979): Methods of studying plant re-sources of fruit species. Fruit-growing Research Institute, Plov-div, pp. 1–151.
Tab. 5. Chemical composition of fresh fruits
 Hemijski sastav sve`ih plodova ______________________________________________________ 
Dry Total InvertedCultivarmattersugarssuga
The flowering of cv ^a~anska Rodna is mid-early.Usually it occurs in the first half of April in the studi-ed region, partially coinciding with that of cv Stanley.The cultivar is self-fertile.During the study period there were no damages tocv ^a~anska Rodna caused by red leaf spots
(Polistig-ma rubrum)
, which determines it as disease tolerant.In more humid years with favourable conditions for disease development there were only single spots (therecorded index of attack was 0.07%) (Tab. 6). No da-mages of economic significance caused by late brownrot (
 Monilinia fructigena
) were recorded.
Tab. 6. Index of infection (%) by fungal diseases
 Indeks zaraze (%) gljivi~nim obolenjima ______________________________________________________ 
RustShot holeRed leaf spots
 R|aRupi~avost li{}aPlamenja~a
(Puccinia pruni (Stigmina(PolistigmaSortaspinosae)carpophila)rubrum) ______________________________________________________ 
^a~anska RodnaAverage

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