1. Owing to lack of space, I do not discuss the issues of science and education that other con-tributors to this volume discuss in detail.2. Even though the formal legal institutions enjoy a kind of monopoly in terms of the legiti-mate use of power, there are some other forms of eﬀective coercion or eﬀective inducement. eindividual belongs to various interposed ﬁelds between the individual and the body politic. esesocial ﬁelds have their own rules and the means of coercing or inducing compliance. Literature onlegal pluralism suggests that in all communities a number of modes of normative orderings coexist with the oﬃcial state law. Local law, custom, and ethnic minority laws and customs can be cited asmajor factors that both inﬂuence and impede the eﬀectiveness of law in modern societies. esefactors are the sources of multiple interpretations, incoherence, legal authorities, local interests,and local concerns. Other than being a source of justiﬁcation for popular resistance, they also may aﬀect the degree of respect for the oﬃcial lawmaker.
civil disobedience, to renew religious thought and practice, and to transformsociety, leaders of faith-based and faith-inspired movements have a role to play (see in detail Yılmaz forthcoming a).In this context, I suggest that Gülen has reinterpreted Islamic understand-ing in tune with contemporary times and has developed and put into practicea new Muslim discourse with respect to some traditionally sensitive issues. Hisdiscourse and practice seem to be in tune with the zeitgeist. I suggest in thischapter that Gülen’s case consists of renewed Muslim discourses and practiceson religion, pluralism, jurisprudence, secularism, democracy, politics, and in-ternational relations.
e Gülen movement, appealing to an increasing numberof Muslims and non-Muslims all over the world, is a successful example of neo-ijtihad and tajdid, with its origins in Turkey, where the encounter between mo-dernity and traditional Islam has been experienced most deeply.I argue mainly that the transformative inﬂuences of Gülen’s discourse can beobserved initially and primarily in the movement he has inspired. At a secondary level, this transformation aﬀects the surrounding wider society. In this regard, Ibrieﬂy highlight Gülen’s ideas on ijtihad, neo-ijtihad, diversity, pluralism, secu-larism, democracy, politics, international relations, and dialog, and elaborate on what Gülen achieves in practice with respect to these issues.
Internal Muslim Legal Pluralism, Islamic Law, Fiqh, and Ijtihad
In a plural society, the issue of legal pluralism (aside from political, cultural,religious, or structural pluralism) arises where normative heterogeneity exists.
Legal pluralism can be found within both the most sophisticated and the lessdeveloped polity; it is a global phenomenon. e theory of legal pluralism triesto deﬁne legal pluralism not in terms of the state, but in terms of authority and