Once you have washed out the starches, you end up with raw wet gluten. If you soak the ball of gluten in pure ethyl alcohol, the glutenin and the gliadin will separate out.The gliadin is the sticky part and will form long tiny silky looking strands whentouched with the finger. The glutenin on the other hand will look and feel like toughraw rubber.
Types of wheat used to produce bread flour.
Hard spring wheat and hard winter wheat are the best types of wheat for producingquality breads. Spring wheats are grown in the Northwest where there is less rainfallthan in other wheat growing areas. This results in a higher percentage of protein and alower percentage of starch than wheats grown in the Southwest where more rain falls.Hard spring wheat generally produce loaves with greater volume than winter wheats,but with slightly more open crumb texture. Millers combine the two types of wheat intheir blend to improve interior loaf characteristics. Hard White Wheat grown in someWestern States, is also used in bread production. It is slightly lower in protein thanspring and winter wheats. Bakers add Vital Wheat Gluten and/or Dough Strengthenersto doughs to make up for the deficiency. Duram Wheats which contain a higherpercentage of proteins than does most other types of wheats are used primarily inmaking spaghetti and macaroni products.
Milling of wheat into flour.
Basically, after the wheat has been cleaned andtempered, and the percentage of moisture within the grain has been adjusted, thewheat passes through several reduction rollers. The grounded middlings are separatedinto several streams of flour by sieving and bolting. The bran particles which havebeen removed are used in cereals. Some are also used for animal feed. 100 pounds of cleaned wheat generally yield only about 70 to 76 pounds of middlings which can beground into various grades of flour.
Grades of flour.
Whole wheat flour is flour produced from 100 percent of the wheat.By adding Vital Wheat Gluten to their formulas bakers are producing high qualityWhite Whole Wheat Bread.Straight grade of flour. This is all of the flour produced after the outer portion (branand germ) have been removed. 100 pounds of wheat will produce about 72 pounds of straight flour. Straight flour is simular to all purpose flour found in grocer stores.Patent flour is a highly refined flour which remains after all the clear flours have beenremoved. Patent flours are produced from the intermost part of the wheat where thebest quality proteins are located. 100 pounds of wheat will produce only about 40 to60 pounds of patent flour, and the middlings that remain go into clear flours.Clear flour is the portion of the flour remaining after the patent flour streams havebeen separated. Clear flour generally contain a higher percentage of protein than theother grades, but the quality of the protein is lower. This type pf flour is generallyused to produce French bread. It is also mixed with wheat flour and rye flour by thebaker to produce loaves with greater volume.
Flour bleaching and maturing.
In order to produce quality breads from fresh milledflour it must be allowed to age or mature in storage for about a month. Bleaching and