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P. 1
Chap 17

Chap 17

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Published by faridkhan

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Published by: faridkhan on Oct 02, 2010
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17.1 INTRODUCTION17.1.1 Definition
The term ‘landfill’ is used herein to describe a unit operation for finaldisposal of ‘Municipal Solid Waste’ on land, designed and constructed with theobjective of minimum impact to the environment by incorporating eight essentialcomponents described in Section 17.3. This term encompasses other terms such as‘secured landfill’ and ‘engineered landfills’ which are also sometimes applied tomunicipal solid waste (MSW) disposal units.The term ‘landfill’ can be treated as synonymous to ‘sanitary landfill’ of Municipal Solid Waste, only if the latter is designed on the principle of wastecontainment and is characterised by the presence of a liner and leachate collectionsystem to prevent ground water contamination. The term ‘sanitary’ landfill hasbeen extensively used in the past to describe MSW disposal units constructed onthe basis of ‘dump and cover’ but with no protection against ground waterpollution. Such landfills do not fall under the term ‘municipal solid wastelandfills’ as used in this chapter.
17.1.2 Landfilling of Municipal Solid Waste
(a) Landfilling will be done for the following types of waste:(i) Comingled waste (mixed waste) not found suitable for wasteprocessing;(ii) Pre-processing and post-processing rejects from waste processingsites;(iii) Non-hazardous waste not being processed or recycled.(b) Landfilling will usually not be done for the following waste streams in themunicipal solid waste:(i) Biowaste/garden waste;(ii) Dry recyclables.
(c) Landfilling of hazardous waste stream in the municipal waste will be doneat a hazardous waste landfill site; such a site will be identified by the StateGovernment and is likely to be operated by industries of a district/state. If such a landfill is not available, municipal authorities will dispose thehazardous waste in a special hazardous waste cell in the MSW landfill asshown in Fig. 17.1. Such a cell will be designed as per Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) guidelines for hazardous waste disposal.(d) Landfilling of construction and demolition waste will be done in a separatelandfill where the waste can be stored and mined for future use inearthwork or road projects. If such a landfill site is not available, the wastewill be stored in a special cell at a MSW landfill from where it can bemined for future use. Construction and demolition waste can be used as adaily cover at MSW landfills; however only minimum thickness of covershould be provided as indicated in section All excess constructionwaste should be stored in the separate landfill cell.(e) All existing and old landfills will be inspected and boreholes will bedrilled for (i) recovery of leachate samples from the base of the landfill,(ii) recovery of subsoil samples beneath the base of the landfill forevaluation of permeability and soil properties and (iii) recovery of wastesamples for waste characterisation. A minimum of 3 boreholes will bedrilled with atleast one borehole for each acre of landfill area. The qualityof leachate samples will be compared with (a) the ground water quality inexisting borewells 2 km away from the landfill and (b) the Central PollutionControl Board (CPCB) norms for limits of contaminants in leachate. If theleachate quality and the permeability of the subsoil strata is observed to besatisfactory, the existing landfill can continue to operate with bi-annualmonitoring of leachate quality in the drilled boreholes.(f) If the leachate quality is observed to be of poor quality with respect to thelocal ground water quality or with respect to the CPCB norms, steps will betaken to close the existing landfill site and remedial measures adopted. Allfuture landfilling will be undertaken in properly designed and constructednew landfills.(g) New landfills will be established as per the norms given in this chapter forsiting (section 17.4), site investigations (section 17.5), design (sections 17.6and 17.7), construction and operation (section 17.8) and closure (section17.9).

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