The rules framed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF),Govt. of India, known as
‘Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling)Rules, 1998,’
notified on 20
July 1998, provides uniform guidelines and code of practice for the whole nation. It is clearly mentioned in this rule that the
(a person who has control over the concerned institution / premises) of an institution generating bio-medical waste (e.g., hospital, nursing home, clinic,dispensary, veterinary institution, animal house, pathological laboratory, bloodbank etc.)
shall be responsible for taking necessary steps to ensure that suchwaste is handled without any adverse effect to human health and theenvironment.Definition :
‘Bio-medical waste’ means any solid and/or liquid waste includingits container and any intermediate product, which is generated during thediagnosis, treatment or immunisation of human beings or animals or in researchpertaining thereto or in the production or testing thereof.The physico-chemical and biological nature of these components, theirtoxicity and potential hazard are different, necessitating different methods / options for their treatment / disposal. In Schedule I of the Bio-medical Waste(Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 (Annexure II), therefore, the wasteoriginating from different kinds of such establishments, has been categorised into10 different categories (as mentioned in the box below) and their treatment anddisposal options have been indicated.
Components of Bio-medical waste
(i) human anatomical waste (tissues, organs, body parts etc.),(ii) animal waste (as above, generated during research/experimentation, from veterinary hospitals etc.),(iii) microbiology and biotechnology waste, such as, laboratory cultures, micro-organisms,human and animal cell cultures, toxins etc.,(iv) waste sharps, such as, hypodermic needles, syringes, scalpels, broken glass etc.,(v) discarded medicines and cyto-toxic drugs(vi) soiled waste, such as dressing, bandages, plaster casts, material contaminated with blood etc.,(vii) solid waste (disposable items like tubes, catheters etc. excluding sharps),(viii) liquid waste generated from any of the infected areas,(ix) incineration ash,(x) chemical waste.