Pathology - Lecture 4Tuesday 28/9/2010Done by: Hadeel Al-Kofahi
Cell Injury – Cellular Adaptations
In the last lecture, we've talked about hyperplasia, hypertrophy,atrophy, and so on, which are changes in growth, cell size,number of cells, and I’ve mentioned the different kinds of tissuesthat have different capacity to proliferate and replace any deadcells, okay ? :D We come now to another subject:
(Meta-) means different. So metaplasia means: the cells have theability to change from one type to another. It’s reversible, but notalways, but usually it's a reversible change. It’s called “anadaptive change” in which one adult cell (it doesn't usually occurin the fetus, usually in adult cells) is replaced by another adultcell type that’s better suited to tolerate an abnormal environmentor injury. For example, if some of you are pale, you put skin lotionto become a little bit dark; as a protection for the skin (so it's aprotective mechanism). Metaplasia may also have a bad effect.It can usually occur in the epithelial cells & the mesenchymetissue. The usual types of cells which are changing are: bronchial,gastric, and cervical epithelium. The first part of the duodenumcan also change and the bone in injured soft tissue. For example:you have some trauma to a muscle; a strong trauma becomeschronic and then it becomes somewhat calcified, and then in thecalcification we find that there’s bone formation to make the softtissue harder, okay?
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