# Welcome back

## Find a book, put up your feet, stay awhile

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more

Download

Standard view

Full view

of .

Look up keyword or section

Like this

Share on social networks

2Activity

×

0 of .

Results for: No results containing your search query

P. 1

EM Lecture Notes Chapter 2 GriffithsRatings: (0)|Views: 515|Likes: 2

Published by 005235

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/38609438/EM-Lecture-Notes-Chapter-2-Griffiths

11/08/2012

text

original

- 1 -

Chapter 2. Electrostatics

2.1. The Electrostatic Field

To calculate the force exerted by some electric charges,

q

1

,

q

2

,

q

3

, ... (

the source charges

) onanother charge

Q

(

the test charge

) we can use the

principle of superposition

. This principlestates that the interaction between any two charges is completely unaffected by the presence of other charges. The force exerted on

Q

by

q

1

,

q

2

, and

q

3

(see Figure 2.1) is therefore equal to thevector sum of the force

F

1

exerted by

q

1

on

Q

, the force

F

2

exerted by

q

2

on

Q

, and the force

F

3

exerted by

q

3

on

Q

.

q3q1q2QF2F3F1Ftot

Figure 2.1. Superposition of forces.

The force exerted by a charged particle on another charged particle depends on theirseparation distance, on their velocities and on their accelerations. In this Chapter we willconsider the special case in which the source charges are stationary.The

electric field

produced by stationary source charges is called and

electrostatic field

.The electric field at a particular point is a vector whose magnitude is proportional to the totalforce acting on a test charge located at that point, and whose direction is equal to the direction of

- 2 -the force acting on a positive test charge. The electric field

E

, generated by a collection of source charges, is defined as

E

=

F Q

where

F

is the total electric force exerted by the source charges on the test charge

Q

. It isassumed that the test charge

Q

is small and therefore does not change the distribution of thesource charges. The total force exerted by the source charges on the test charge is equal to

F

=

F

1

+

F

2

+

F

3

+

...

=

14

pe

0

q

1

Qr

12

ˆ

r

1

+

q

2

Qr

22

ˆ

r

2

+

q

3

Qr

32

ˆ

r

3

+

...

Ê Ë Áˆ ¯ ˜ =

Q

4

pe

0

q

i

r

i

2

ˆ

r

ii

=

1

n

Â

The electric field generated by the source charges is thus equal to

E

=

F Q

=

14

pe

0

q

i

r

i

2

ˆ

r

ii

=

1

n

Â

In most applications the source charges are not discrete, but are distributed continuously oversome region. The following three different distributions will be used in this course:1.

line charge

l

: the charge per unit length.2.

surface charge

s

: the charge per unit area.3.

volume charge

r

: the charge per unit volume.To calculate the electric field at a point

P

generated by these charge distributions we have toreplace the summation over the discrete charges with an integration over the continuous chargedistribution:1. for a line charge:

E P

( )

=

14

pe

0

ˆ

rr

2

l

dl

Line

Ú

2. for a surface charge:

E P

( )

=

14

pe

0

ˆ

rr

2

s

da

Surface

Ú

3. for a volume charge:

E P

( )

=

14

pe

0

ˆ

rr

2

r

d

t

Volume

Ú

- 3 -Here ˆ

r

is the unit vector from a segment of the charge distribution to the point

P

at which weare evaluating the electric field, and

r

is the distance between this segment and point

P

.

Example: Problem 2.2

a)Find the electric field (magnitude and direction) a distance

z

above the midpoint between twoequal charges

q

a distance

d

apart. Check that your result is consistent with what you wouldexpect when

z

»

d

.b)Repeat part a), only this time make he right-hand charge

-q

instead of +

q

.

zd/2d/2P

a)

Er El Etot zd/2d/2P

b)

El Er Etot

Figure 2.2. Problem 2.2

a)Figure 2.2a shows that the

x

components of the electric fields generated by the two pointcharges cancel. The total electric field at

P

is equal to the sum of the

z

components of theelectric fields generated by the two point charges:

E P

( )

=

214

pe

0

q

14

d

2

+

z

2

Ê Ë ˆ ¯

z

14

d

2

+

z

2

ˆ

z

=

12

pe

0

qz

14

d

2

+

z

2

Ê Ë ˆ ¯

3/2

ˆ

z

When

z

»

d

this equation becomes approximately equal to

E P

( )

@

12

pe

0

q z

2

ˆ

z

=

14

pe

0

2

q z

2

ˆ

z

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

© Copyright 2015 Scribd Inc.

Language:

Choose the language in which you want to experience Scribd:

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Password Reset Email Sent

Join with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

By joining, you agree to our

read free for one month

Personalized recommendationsbased on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Join with Facebook

or Join with EmailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

Already a member? Sign in.

By joining, you agree to our

to download

Personalized recommendationsbased on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Continue with Facebook

Sign inJoin with emailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

By joining, you agree to our

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd