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Computational Fluid Dynamic Solutions of Hyper Sonic Viscous Flows

Computational Fluid Dynamic Solutions of Hyper Sonic Viscous Flows

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06/29/2012

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Computational Fluid Dynamic Solutions of Hypersonic Viscous Flows
Husein Bhinderwala
Student, Mechanical Dept., K.J.Somaiya College of Engineering  Mumbai University
bhinderwala.husein@gmail.com
Abstract
²

Our objective here will be to present variousapproaches to the solutions of hypersonic viscous flowswhich go beyond, and are more ³exact´ than, theboundary layer analysis.
I
. INTRODUCTIONComputational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the numericalsimulation of flowfields through the approximate solution of the governing partial differential equations for mass,momentum, and energy conservation coupled with theappropriate relations for thermodynamic and transport properties. Today using CFD, the viscous interaction effectcan be calculated by treating the entire flowfield between the body and shock as
fully viscous²
no division between a boundary layer and a inviscid flow is made.Another reason to apply a wholly viscous shock-layer analysis over the conventional approach is that the derivationof boundary layer equations does not provide for a way tocompute

-- y-momentum.The most accurate approach to the solution of a fullyviscous flow is the complete Navier-Stokes equations with no basic simplifications whatsoever. It also allows the detailedcalculations of the complete flowfield over a body where theflow is assumed to be viscous at every point. Hence it provideseverything about the flow, such as the shock shape, detailedflow variables between the shock and the body, skin friction,heat transfer, lift, drag, moments, etc. Finally we are going to provide a CFD analysis done by the author, on a c-d nozzle for solutions of hypersonic flow using the Zeus Numerix softwareII.FULL NAVIER-STOKES SOLUTIONSThe
ultimate
in hypersonic viscous flow calculations is thesolution of the complete Navier-Stokes equations(Ref 1) withno reduction of any terms. The modern techniques of CFD incombination with new supercomputers now allow thenumerical solution of the equations.On close examination of Navier-Stokes equations, it isconcluded that they are a system of p.d.e.s with somewhatmixed hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptic behaviour. Let uswrite the equations such that the time derivatives are on theleft side and all spatial derivatives are on the right side of theequationsContinuity equation
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(5)The time-marching solution of these equation isconceptually carried out as follows:1. Cover the flowfield with grid point, and assume arbitraryvalues of all the dependent variables at each grid point. Thisrepresents the assumed initial condition at time t=0.2. Calculate the values of p, u, v, w and (e+

) from eqs.(1-5) as function of time, using a time marching finitedifference method. One such method is the explicit predictor-corrector technique Mac-Cormack (Ref 2).3. The final steady state flow is obtained in the asymptoticlimit of large times. In most cases, this is the desired result.However, the time-marching procedure can also be used tocalculate the transient behaviour viscous flows.The numerical solution of the full Navier-Stokesequations for hypersonic flows is a state of the art research problem at the present. Many numerical approaches have beenand are being developed and studied, both using explicit and

implicit finite difference method. See Ref 3 for an organised presentation of such method. A full Navier-Stokes calculationof the flowfield over a complete 3-D airplane configuration.Such a calculation has recently been made, for the first time inthe history of aerodynamics, by Joe Shang at the Air-Forceflight dynamic laboratory, and is described in Ref 4. Here, theviscous flow is calculated over the X-24C hypersonic researchvehicle at
 
. A three view of the X-24C is shown infigure 1.
Fig. 1`. Three view of the X-24C hypersonic test vehicle
The calculation carried out by Shang has the followingcharacteristics:1. The complete Navier-Stokes eqs were used in aconservation form derivable from Eqs. (1-5)2. The Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model was employed. SeeRef. 53. Mac-Cormack explicit predictor-corrector finite differencescheme in precisely the same form as described in Ref. 2 wasused for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes eqn.4. The shock capturing approach was taken.5. A mesh system consisting of 475,200 grid points asdistributed over the flowfield.Sample results from the calculation are shown in Figure 2-4. In fig. 2a and b, peripheral surface pressure distribution aregiven as a function of normalised arc length at various streamwise stations denoted by x/
, where
is the nose radius. By peripheral distributions, what is meant is a distribution alonga body surface generator that goes from the top to the bottomof the vehicle at a given stream-wise station; these peripheraldirections are clearly shown in fig. 3 which is a perspectiveview of the X-24C. In fig. 2 the normalised arc length isdefined as the length measured from the top of the vehicletoward the bottom, divided by the total arc length of eachindividual cross section. For graphical clarity, each peripheral
Fig. 2aFig. 2bFigure 2 Peripheral surface pressure distributions around the X-24C;comparison between experiment and the Navier-Stokes calculations of ShangFig. 3 Illustration of the peripheral direction around the X-24C for the datashown

distribution at succeeding axial location is displaced slightly tothe right along the abscissa. Also in fig. 2 the computed resultsare compared with the experimental data of Ref. 6. Note thatvery good agreement is obtained between the calculation andexperiment. The pressure distribution in fig. 2a pertain to thefront part of the vehicle, from the nose region to downstreamof the canopy.
Fig. 4 Computed surface streamlines over the X-24C
Finally, the computed surface surface streamline pattern isshown in figure 4. The overall calculated aerodynamic lift anddrag co-efficients, obtained by integrating the calculated pressure and shear stress distributions over the airplanesurface, are compared with experimental measurements astabulated below:

Experimental data 3.676*

3.173*

1.158 Numerical results 3.503*

2.960*

1.183Percent error 4.71 6.71 2.16 Note that the errors in
and
tend to cancel, giving areasonably accurate estimate of lift to drag ratio, L/D.III. COMPUTATIONAL RESULTS BY THE AUTHOR Computational results using the Navier-StokesEquations were found out on a converging ±diverging nozzlefor a Mach no. 5 and pressure of 5*

Pa. The resultsobtained are as follows:Fig. 5 Grid generation on the c-d nozzleFig. 6 Pressure distribution in the nozzle