temperatures are present in this speed regime andvariable geometry may not be an option for the inletdesigner because of possible flow leaks through thehinges. For scramjet-powered aircraft, the heatenvironment is even worse because the flight Machnumber is higher than that for a ramjet-poweredaircraft. Scramjet inlets are highly integrated with thefuselage of the aircraft. Thick, hot boundary layers areusually present on the compression surfaces of hypersonic inlets. The flow exiting a scramjet inletmust remain supersonic.
All gas turbine engines have a
to produce thrust, toconduct the exhaust gases back to the free stream, and to setthe mass flow rate through the engine. The nozzle sitsdownstream of the power turbine.A nozzle is a relatively simple device, just a specially shapedtube through which hot gases flow. However, the mathematicswhich describes the operation of the nozzle takes some carefulthought. Nozzles come in a variety of shapes and sizesdepending on the mission of the aircraft.Simple turbojets, and turboprops, often have a fixed geometryconvergent nozzle as shown on the left of thefigure. Turbofan engines often employ a co-annular nozzle asshown at the top left. The core flow exits the centre nozzlewhile the fan flow exits the annular nozzle. Mixing of the twoflows provides some thrust enhancement and these nozzles alsotend to be quieter than convergent nozzles. Afterburningturbojets and turbofans require a variablegeometry convergent-divergent - CD nozzle. In this nozzle, theflow first converges down to the minimum area or
thenis expanded through the divergent section to the exit at theright. The variable geometry causes these nozzles to be heavier than a fixed geometry nozzle, but variable geometry providesefficient engine operation over a wider airflow range than asimple fixed nozzle.Rocket engines also use nozzles to accelerate hot exhaust to produce thrust. Rocket engines usually have a fixed geometryCD nozzle with a much larger divergent section than isrequired for a gas turbine. Recently, however, engineers have been experimenting with nozzles with rectangular exits. Thisallows the exhaust flow to be easily deflected, or vectored.Changing the direction of the thrust with the nozzle makes theaircraft much more manoeuvrable.Because the nozzle conducts the hot exhaust back to the freestream, there can be serious interactions between the engineexhaust flow and the airflow around the aircraft. On fighter aircraft, in particular, large drag penalties can occur near thenozzle exits. A typical nozzle-after body configuration isshown in the upper right for an F-15 with experimentalmaneuvering nozzles. As with the inlet design, the externalnozzle configuration is often designed by the airframe andsubjected to wind tunnel testing to determine the performanceeffects on the airframe. The internal nozzle is usually theresponsibility of the engine manufacturer.IV. CALCULATIONS DONE ON ENGINESIM SOFTWAREWith this software you can investigate how a jet (or turbine) engine produces thrust by interactively changing thevalues of different engine parameters.By convention, a white box with black numbers is an input boxand you can change the value of the number. A black box withyellow or red numbers is an output box and the value iscomputed by the program.The program screen is divided into four main parts:1.
On the top left side of the screen is a graphic of theengine you are designing or testing. In the DesignMode, the drawing is a schematic, while in TunnelTest Mode the drawing is an animation.2.
On the upper right side of the screen are choice buttons which control the analysis. You can select thetype of analysis, the type of output to be displayed,and the units to be used in the calculations. You willalways see the overall engine performance displayedas thrust, fuel flow, airflow, and computed engineweight.3.
On the lower right side of the screen are the results of engine performance calculations. The output can be presented as numerical values of certain parameters,graphs of engine performance, or as photos of theengine parts with descriptions of their purpose. Youselect the type of output displayed by using the choice button labelled "Output:" on the upper right panel.4.
On the lower left side of the screen various input panels are displayed. You can select the input panel by clicking on the name or the component in thegraphic at the upper left.Flight Conditions include the Mach number, airspeed,altitude, pressure, temperature, and throttle and afterburner settings. There are several different combinations of thesevariables available for input. The pressure and temperature arecomputed as functions of the altitude by using a Standard Dayatmospheric model.Design variables for each engine component can also be varied.The components and variables include the Inlet (pressurerecovery), Fan (pressure ratio, efficiency, and bypass ratio),Compressor (CPR, compressor efficiency), Burner (fuel,maximum temperature, efficiency, and pressure ratio), Turbine(turbine efficiency) and Nozzle (maximum temperature,efficiency, A8/A2). As you choose a different component the part of the engine being affected is highlighted in the graphic by changing from its default colour to yellow. Engine Size can be specified by either the frontal area or the diameter. As the