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Hyper Sonic Air

Hyper Sonic Air

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Published by Husein Bhinderwala

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Published by: Husein Bhinderwala on Oct 03, 2010
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This paper is intended to offer the reader anintroduction to the study of ramjet and scramjetpropulsion, including careful definitions of terms and aunified description of the processes and characteristics of the ramjet and scramjet engine. This paper reviews themajor knowledge base that has been accumulated throughyears of theoretical and experimental research on topicsrelevant to ramjet and scramjet propulsion. Later in thepaper, various innovative technological ideas or proposalshave been put forth that need great extent of research andexperimentation to follow up on. Lastly, the author hasperformed a series of calculations using NASA¶s EngineSimsoftware on a predetermined ramjet model and citations of data from various wind tunnel tests from references.
I. INTRODUCTIONThrust is the force which moves any aircraft through theair. Thrust is generated by the propulsion system of the aircraft.Different propulsion systems develop thrust in different ways, but all thrust is generated through some application of  Newton's third law of motion. For every action there is anequal and opposite reaction. In any propulsion system,a working fluid is accelerated by the system and the reaction tothis acceleration produces a force on the system. A generalderivation of the thrust equation shows that the amount of thrust generated depends on the mass flow through the engineand the exit velocity of the gas.In the early 1900's some of the original ideasconcerning ramjet propulsion were first developed in Europe.Thrust is produced by passing the hot exhaust fromthe combustion of a fuel through a nozzle. The nozzleaccelerates the flow, and the reaction to this acceleration produces thrust. To maintain the flow through the nozzle, thecombustion must occur at a pressure that is higher than the pressure at the nozzle exit. In a ramjet, the high pressure is produced by "ramming" external air into the combustor usingthe forward speed of the vehicle. The external air that is brought into the propulsion system becomes the working fluid,much like a turbojet engine. In a turbojet engine, the high pressure in the combustor is generated by a piece of machinerycalled a compressor. But there are no compressors in a ramjet.Therefore, ramjets are lighter and simpler than a turbojet.Ramjets produce thrust only when the vehicle is alreadymoving; ramjets cannot produce thrust when the engine isstationary or static. Since a ramjet cannot produce static thrust,some other propulsion system must be used to accelerate thevehicle to a speed where the ramjet begins to produce thrust.The higher the speed of the vehicle, the better a ramjet worksuntil aerodynamic losses become a dominant factor.The combustion that produces thrust in the ramjet occurs ata subsonic speed in the combustor. For a vehicle travellingsupersonically, the air entering the engine must be slowed tosubsonic speeds by the aircraft inlet. Shock waves present inthe inlet cause performance losses for the propulsion system.Above Mach 5, ramjet propulsion becomes very inefficient.The new supersonic combustion ramjet, or scramjet, solves this problem by performing the combustion supersonically in the burner.
Fig1. Supersonic ramjet BrahMos missiles
Shown above are pictures of an BrahMos missile usingramjet technology for propulsion. A rocket is used to bring theramjet up to speed before it produces thrust. Because the ramjetuses external air for combustion, it is a more efficient propulsion system for flight within the atmosphere thana rocket, which must carry all of its oxygen. Ramjets areideally suited for very high speed flight within the atmosphere.II. RAMJET/SCRAMJET THRUSTA ramjet engine provides a simple, light propulsionsystem for high speed flight. Likewise, the supersoniccombustion ramjet, or scramjet, provides high thrust and lowweight for hypersonic flight speeds. Unlike a turbojet engine,ramjets and scramjets have no moving parts, only an inlet, acombustor that consists of a fuel injector and a flame holder,and a nozzle. How do ramjets and scramjets work?
When mounted on a high speed aircraft, large amounts of surrounding air are continuously brought into the engine inlet because of the forward motion of the aircraft. The air is slowedgoing through the inlet, and the dynamic pressure due tovelocity is converted into higher static pressure. At the exit of the inlet, the air is at a much higher pressure than free stream.While the free stream velocity may be either subsonic or supersonic, the flow exiting the inlet of a ramjet is alwayssubsonic. The flow exiting a scramjet inlet is supersonic andhas fewer shock losses than a ramjet inlet at the same vehiclevelocity. In the burner, a small amount of fuel is combinedwith the air and ignited. In a typical engine, 100 pounds of air/sec. is combined with only 2 pounds of fuel/sec. Most of thehot exhaust has come from the surrounding air. Flame holdersin the burner localize the combustion process. Burning occurssubsonically in the ramjet and supersonically in the scramjet.Leaving the burner, the hot exhaust passes through a nozzle,which is shaped to accelerate the flow. Because the exitvelocity is greater than the free stream velocity, thrust iscreated as described by the general thrust equation (Eq. 1). For ramjet and scramjet engines, the exit mass flow is nearly equalto the free stream mass flow, since very little fuel is added tothe stream.
Fig.2 Schematic representation of a Ramjet engine
The thrust equation for ramjets and scramjets contain threeterms: gross thrust, ram drag, and a pressure correction. If thefree stream conditions are denoted by a "0" subscript and theexit conditions by an "e" subscript, then:Thrust=F=
   
 
 
Eq. 11.
Aerodynamicists often refer to the first term (exitmass flow rate times exit velocity) as the
, since this term is largely associated withconditions in the nozzle.2.
The second term (free stream mass flow rate timesfree stream velocity) is called the
ram drag
. Thisterm can be quite large for scramjet engines.3.
For ramjets and scramjets, the nozzle exit velocity issupersonic, and the exit pressure depends on the arearatio between the throat of the nozzle and the exit of the nozzle.
Pressure correction
is usually smallcompared to the first term of the thrust equation. Butfor completeness, this term is usually included in thegross thrust.III. RAMJET PARTSFor high supersonic or hypersonic flight, theideal propulsion system is a ramjet. A ramjet uses the forwardspeed of the aircraft to compress the incoming air and,therefore, has fewer moving parts than a turbine engine.
Fig. 3 Computer Drawing of a typical ramjet engine
In this figure3 we show a computer drawing of a typicalramjet engine. In the computer drawing, we have cut out a portion of the engine to have a look inside. At the front of theengine, to the left, is the inlet, which brings outside air into theengine. At the exit of the inlet, the air is at a much higher  pressure than free stream conditions. Fuel is injected and mixedfor combustion just downstream of the inlet. The resultingflame is stabilized in the engine by the red flame holder ring.This part is very similar to an afterburner in a fighter  jet engine. The hot exhaust then passes through the nozzle,which is shaped to accelerate the flow and produce thrust.
 An inlet for a supersonic aircraft has a sharp lip. Theinlet lip is sharpened to minimize the performancelosses from shock waves that occur during supersonicflight. For a supersonic aircraft, the inlet must slowthe flow down to subsonic speeds before the air reaches the compressor. Some supersonic inlets use acentral cone to shock the flow down to subsonicspeeds. Other inlets use flat hinged plates to generatethe compression shocks, with the resulting inletgeometry having a rectangular cross section.This variable geometry inlet is used on the F-14 andF-15 fighter aircraft. The inlets of the Mach 3+ SR-71aircraft are specially designed to allow cruising flightat high speed. The inlets of the SR-71 actually produce thrust during flight.
HYPERSONICINLETS² Inlets for hypersonic aircraft present the ultimatedesign challenge. For ramjet-powered aircraft, theinlet must bring the high speed external flow down tosubsonic conditions in the burner. High stagnation
temperatures are present in this speed regime andvariable geometry may not be an option for the inletdesigner because of possible flow leaks through thehinges. For scramjet-powered aircraft, the heatenvironment is even worse because the flight Machnumber is higher than that for a ramjet-poweredaircraft. Scramjet inlets are highly integrated with thefuselage of the aircraft. Thick, hot boundary layers areusually present on the compression surfaces of hypersonic inlets. The flow exiting a scramjet inletmust remain supersonic.
All gas turbine engines have a
to produce thrust, toconduct the exhaust gases back to the free stream, and to setthe mass flow rate through the engine. The nozzle sitsdownstream of the power turbine.A nozzle is a relatively simple device, just a specially shapedtube through which hot gases flow. However, the mathematicswhich describes the operation of the nozzle takes some carefulthought. Nozzles come in a variety of shapes and sizesdepending on the mission of the aircraft.Simple turbojets, and turboprops, often have a fixed geometryconvergent nozzle as shown on the left of thefigure. Turbofan engines often employ a co-annular nozzle asshown at the top left. The core flow exits the centre nozzlewhile the fan flow exits the annular nozzle. Mixing of the twoflows provides some thrust enhancement and these nozzles alsotend to be quieter than convergent nozzles. Afterburningturbojets and turbofans require a variablegeometry convergent-divergent - CD nozzle. In this nozzle, theflow first converges down to the minimum area or 
thenis expanded through the divergent section to the exit at theright. The variable geometry causes these nozzles to be heavier than a fixed geometry nozzle, but variable geometry providesefficient engine operation over a wider airflow range than asimple fixed nozzle.Rocket engines also use nozzles to accelerate hot exhaust to produce thrust. Rocket engines usually have a fixed geometryCD nozzle with a much larger divergent section than isrequired for a gas turbine. Recently, however, engineers have been experimenting with nozzles with rectangular exits. Thisallows the exhaust flow to be easily deflected, or vectored.Changing the direction of the thrust with the nozzle makes theaircraft much more manoeuvrable.Because the nozzle conducts the hot exhaust back to the freestream, there can be serious interactions between the engineexhaust flow and the airflow around the aircraft. On fighter aircraft, in particular, large drag penalties can occur near thenozzle exits. A typical nozzle-after body configuration isshown in the upper right for an F-15 with experimentalmaneuvering nozzles. As with the inlet design, the externalnozzle configuration is often designed by the airframe andsubjected to wind tunnel testing to determine the performanceeffects on the airframe. The internal nozzle is usually theresponsibility of the engine manufacturer.IV. CALCULATIONS DONE ON ENGINESIM SOFTWAREWith this software you can investigate how a jet (or turbine) engine produces thrust by interactively changing thevalues of different engine parameters.By convention, a white box with black numbers is an input boxand you can change the value of the number. A black box withyellow or red numbers is an output box and the value iscomputed by the program.The program screen is divided into four main parts:1.
On the top left side of the screen is a graphic of theengine you are designing or testing. In the DesignMode, the drawing is a schematic, while in TunnelTest Mode the drawing is an animation.2.
On the upper right side of the screen are choice buttons which control the analysis. You can select thetype of analysis, the type of output to be displayed,and the units to be used in the calculations. You willalways see the overall engine performance displayedas thrust, fuel flow, airflow, and computed engineweight.3.
On the lower right side of the screen are the results of engine performance calculations. The output can be presented as numerical values of certain parameters,graphs of engine performance, or as photos of theengine parts with descriptions of their purpose. Youselect the type of output displayed by using the choice button labelled "Output:" on the upper right panel.4.
On the lower left side of the screen various input panels are displayed. You can select the input panel by clicking on the name or the component in thegraphic at the upper left.Flight Conditions include the Mach number, airspeed,altitude, pressure, temperature, and throttle and afterburner settings. There are several different combinations of thesevariables available for input. The pressure and temperature arecomputed as functions of the altitude by using a Standard Dayatmospheric model.Design variables for each engine component can also be varied.The components and variables include the Inlet (pressurerecovery), Fan (pressure ratio, efficiency, and bypass ratio),Compressor (CPR, compressor efficiency), Burner (fuel,maximum temperature, efficiency, and pressure ratio), Turbine(turbine efficiency) and Nozzle (maximum temperature,efficiency, A8/A2). As you choose a different component the part of the engine being affected is highlighted in the graphic by changing from its default colour to yellow. Engine Size can be specified by either the frontal area or the diameter. As the

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