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Aeroplanes

Aeroplanes

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Published by Christian Barnard

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Published by: Christian Barnard on Oct 03, 2010
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12/09/2010

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Page 1 , Aeroplanes - J.S.Zerbe
Aeroplanesby J. S. ZerbeScanned by Charles Keller with OmniPage Professional OCR softwareAEROPLANESThis work is not intended to set forth the exploits of aviatorsnor to give a history of the Art. It is a book of instructionsintended to point out the theories of flying, as given by thepioneers, the practical application of power to the variousflying structures; how they are built, the different methods ofcontrolling them; the advantages and disadvantages of the typesnow in use; and suggestions as to the directions in whichimprovements are required.It distinctly points out wherein mechanical flight differsfrom bird flight, and what are the relations of shape, form, sizeand weight. It treats of kites, gliders and model aeroplanes,and has an Interesting chapter on the aeroplane and its uses Inthe great war. All the illustrations have been specially preparedfor the work.Every Boy's Mechanical LibraryAEROPLANESBYJ. S. ZERBE, M. E.Author of Automobiles--MotorsCONTENTS
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Page 2 , Aeroplanes - J.S.Zerbe
INTRODUCTORYCHAPTER I. THEORIES AND FACTS ABOUT FLYINGThe "Science" of Aviation. Machine Types. Shapeor Form not Essential. A Stone as a Flying Machine.Power the Great Element. Gravity as Power. Massand Element in Flying. Momentum a Factor. Resistance.How Resistance Affects Shape. Mass and Resistance.The Early Tendency to Eliminate Momentum.Light Machines Unstable. The Application ofPower. The Supporting Surfaces. Area not the EssentialThing. The Law of Gravity. Gravity. Indestructibilityof Gravitation. Distance Reduces GravitationalPull. How Motion Antagonizes Gravity. ATangent. Tangential Motion Represents CentrifugalPull. Equalizing the Two Motions. Lift and Drift.Normal Pressure. Head Resistance. Measuring Liftand Drift. Pressure at Different Angles. DifferenceBetween Lift and Drift in Motion. Tables of Lift andDrift. Why Tables of Lift and Drift are Wrong.Langley's Law. Moving Planes vs. Winds. Momentumnot Considered. The Flight of Birds. TheDownward Beat. The Concaved Wing. Feather StructureConsidered. Webbed Wings. The Angle of Movement.An Initial Movement or Impulse Necessary. AWedging Motion. No Mystery in the Wave Motion.How Birds Poise with Flapping Wings. Narrow-winged Birds. Initial Movement of Soaring Birds.Soaring Birds Move Swiftly. Muscular EnergyExerted by Soaring Birds. Wings not Motionless.CHAPTER II. PRINCIPLES OF AEROPLANE FLIGHTSpeed as one of the Elements. Shape and Speed.What "Square of the Speed" Means. Action of a"Skipper." Angle of Incidence. Speed and Surface.Control of the Direction of Flight. Vertical Planes.CHAPTER III. THE FORM OR SHAPE OF FLYING MACHINESThe Theory of Copying Nature. Hulls of Vessels.Man Does not Copy Nature. Principles Essential, notForms. Nature not the Guide as to Forms. The PropellerType. Why Specially-designed Forms ImproveNatural Structures. Mechanism Devoid of Intelligence.A Machine Must Have a Substitute for Intelligence.Study of Bird Flight Useless. Shape of
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Page 3 , Aeroplanes - J.S.Zerbe
Supporting Surface. The Trouble Arising From OutstretchedWings. Density of the Atmosphere. Elasticityof the Air. "Air Holes." Responsibility forAccidents. The Turning Movement. Centrifugal Action:The Warping Planes.CHAPTER IV. FORE AND AFT CONTROLThe Bird Type of Fore and Aft Control. Angle andDirection of Flight. Why Should the Angle of theBody Change. Changing Angle of Body not Safe. ANon-changing Body. Descending Positions by PowerControl. Cutting off the Power. The Starting Movement.The Suggested Type. The Low Center of Gravity.Fore and Aft Oscillations. Application of theNew Principle. Low Weight not Necessary with Synchronously-moving wings.CHAPTEB V. DIFFERENT MACHINE TYPES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICSThe Helicopter. Aeroplanes. The Monoplane. ItsAdvantages. Its Disadvantages. The Bi-plane. Stabilityin Bi-planes. The Orthopter. Nature's Typenot Uniform. Theories About Flight of Birds. Instinct.The Mode of Motion. The Wing Structure.The Wing Movement. The Helicopter Motion.CHAPTER VI. THE LIFTING SURFACES OF AEROPLANESRelative Speed and Angle. Narrow Planes Most Effective.Stream Lines Along a Plane. The Center ofPressure. Air Lines on the Upper Side of a Plane.Rarefied Area. Rarefaction Produced by Motion. TheConcaved Plane. The Center of Pressure. Utilizingthe Rarefied Area. Changing Center of Pressure.Plane Monstrosities. The Bird Wing Structure.Torsion. The Bat's Wing. An Abnormal Shape. TheTail as a Monitor.CHAPTER VII. ABNORMAL FLYING STUNTS AND SPEEDSLack of Improvements in Machines. Men Exploitedand not Machines. Abnormal Flying of no Value.The Art of Juggling. Practical Uses the Best Test.Concaved and Convex Planes. How Momentum is aFactor in Inverted Flying. The Turning Movement.When Concaved Planes are Desirable. The SpeedMania. Uses of Flying Machines. Perfection in MachinesMust Come Before Speed. The Range of itsUses. Commercial Utility.
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