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7006754 How the Industrial Revolution Came About

7006754 How the Industrial Revolution Came About

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Published by: maxentiuss on Oct 03, 2010
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Feb 4Matthew SnodgrassHow The Industrial Revolution Came AboutWhy Was the Industrial Revolution So Important To History?
The Machine has changed the worldin the last 200 years. The lives of individuals and the fates of nations have been changes; production of goods and the ways people earn their living changed too. The expansion of the world trade into areasundreamed of before the 18
Century affected the entire world. All this was brought about by theIndustrial Revolution.For thousands of years the basic methods of earning a living had been unchanged. A Greek of Pericles'time or a Roman friend of Julius Caesar would have adjusted fairly easily to the Europe of the early18
Century, for the fundamental methods of agriculture had not changed greatly in all these years. Buthe would find the world of today a very different place to live and to work in. He would be amazed atmethods of mass production, the endless variety of products, the train, steamship and plane, the radio,wireless, telephone, television, education and learning, science and medicine. All these, and more, were brought about by the Industrial Revolution.
What Does the Term “Industrial Revolution” Mean?
The Industrial Revolution is defined as a basicchange in the methods of producing goods, using power-driven machinery. It included the following:
The invention of machines to replace human labor.
The development of new forms of power-water, steam, electricity, oil and most recently, atomicenergy
Increased production and use of such minerals and metals as coal, iron, steel and aluminum.
Improved methods of transportation and communication.
Mass production of goods, with increase in number and kind.
The growth of factories.
The movement of people from farm to factory, from country to city.
The growth of capitalism, providing the financial capital for this industrial expansion
The rise of new classes: the bourgeoisie and the working class
Changes in production through machines and science.Domestic SystemFactory SystemMethods UsedSimple hand toolsMachineWhere ProducedAt homeIn factoryType and ownership toolsSimple tools owned by worker,operated by handComplex power-driven machinesowned by the capitalistOutputSmall, limited to local market,and made only when orderedLarge scale, for a world market,and made in anticipation of demandWork done by the workerWorker usually made entirearticleWorker operated on an assemblyline, performing one operationHours of workAs many as worker could,whenever work was requiredRegular hours on a daily basisDependence on employerMost workers were also smallfarmersCompletely dependent oncapitalist for income
Results of the Industrial Revolution
The jobs we work at, the food we eat, the education we receive, the leisure time activities weenjoy, the form of government under which we live-all these have been influenced by the IndustrialRevolution. The most important changes were:
Economic Changes
1.Rise of the factory system2.Growth of industrial capitalism.3.Mass production of goods.4.Increase in standards of living.5.Unemployment problems.6.Expansion of world trade.
B. Political Changes1.
Rise of businessmen to power.
Decline of landed aristocracy.
Growth of democracy.
Increased activities of government.
Stimulus to nationalism and imperialism.
Shift of power in world affairs to industrialized nation.
C. Social Changes1.
Increase in population
Development of cities.
Improved status of women.
Growth in leisure time.
Stimulation to science and research.
Creation of such problems as slums, economic insecurity, and the increased deadline of war.
The Industrial RevolutionThe Industrial Revolution Begins in England.
Unlike other revolutions we have studied (the EnglishRevolution of the 17
Century and the French Revolution of the 18
Century), which are marked bydefinite events and dates, the Industrial Revolution consisted of slow, gradual changes that arenoticeable in England. England was the home of the Industrial Revolution because it had many of thenecessary conditions:
English merchants had grown rich from the Commercial Revolution. They had themoney to invest in new machines and to build factories.
England had a large growing market for manufactured goods at home and in her colonial empire in America and in Asia.
3.Raw materials:
England had large and easily available quantities of important raw materialssuch as iron (to build the new machines and coal (to power them). She could easily get cottonfrom her colonies and other countries.
England had an adequate supply of workers for the new factories. Serfdom and theguilds began to decline early in that country, with the result that English workers were free tomove from farm to factor. Many peasants had lost their land after the Enclosure Acts and thishelped to increase the labor supply.

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