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Table Of Contents

Acknowledgment
Introduction
Four Aspects of the Qur’An
Outlining the Sources of Islam
A Brief History on the Making of the Qur’An
Mohammad and a Humble Beginning
Mohammad and the Divine Revelation (610)
Mohammad Initially Persecuted (616)
First Success (620)
Mohammad’s Monotheism Compared to Abraham
The Pact of Al-Aqabah
The Hijrah and the Surahs
The First Friction with the Jews of Medinah
Facing Makkah Instead of Facing Jerusalem (622)
The Battle of Badr, a Victory (624)
Temporary Defeat—Mount Uhud (625)
Elimination of Bani Quireyzah (627)
The Jewish Connection
The Truce of Hudeybiah (628)
Jewish Kheibar and Mohammad
The Final Push and Ultimate Triumph (630)
The Final Years of the Hijrah
Mohammad’s Legacy
Mohammad’s Death (632)
After the Death of Mohammad
The Caliphate and the Split of Islam
Abraham, the Universal Father (Are His Descendants United?)
Changing the Name of Abraham
The Name of Sarah Changes
Isaac and Ishmael
Common Ancestors
No Perfection in Any Religion
Schism in Religions: Christians and Jews
The Shiites and the Sunnis
Wahabism
Sufism
How Do We Approach the “Other Religion”?
The Pope’s Message for Unity
Religion and Violence
Sectarian Violence
Ethnic Cleansing
Violence as Quoted in the Bible and the Qur’An
Why the Amalekites?
Why Was the Violence Justified?
Declare Peace Before Waging War
Fighting in the Name of Allah
Was Violence Misconstrued?
Honor Killing and Violence
Honor Killing and Tribal Tradition
Biblical and Pre-Islamic Background to Honor Killing
Honor Killing and the Qur’An
International Justice and Honor Killing
Islamic Justice and Honor Killing
Conclusion on Honor Killing
Ishmael, the Preferred Son
God Blesses Abraham and His Descendants
A Midrashic Interpretation of Ishmael
Ishmael’s Importance in the Bible and the Qur’An
Tracing Ishmael, the Qur’Anic Version
Tracing Ishmael—Biblical Version
Where Did Ishmael Go?
Biblical Paran and the Promised Land
Ishmael, Still a Powerful Figure
How Do We Reconcile the Two Ishmaels?
A Favorable Midrash on Ishmael
Time Line Leading to Mohammad and Beyond
Time Line between Mohammad and His Biblical Heroes
Moses and Mohammad
Abraham and Mohammad
Jewish Pre-Islamic Settlements in Arabia
Pre-Islamic Literature
The Jahiliyya
Mohammad and Pagan Tribes
The Prophet’s Advice to the Unruly
Mohammad as a Stabilizing Force
Mohammad and the Deceiving Poets
An Eye for an Eye
The Hadith and the Tasfir
The Hadith
Verifying the Authenticity of the Hadith
Four Degrees of Reliability
Types of Isnads (Chains of Reporting)
Tasfir and Biblical Influence
Tasfir and its Complexity
Sufism And Tasfir
Scholarly Research on the Origins of the Qur’An
Scholars and Their Views on the Origin of the Qur’An
The Hadith and Midrashic Literature
Some Authors of the Hadith
Mohammad and the People of the Book
Biblical Ancestors: A Qur’Anic Overview
The Golden Rules
The Sin of the Golden Calf
Ancient Wisdom and Language Influence
The Psalms and the Qur’An
The Islamic Equivalent of the Proverbs
Leading Question on Biblical Influence
Biblical Language and the Qur’An
The Illiterate but Brilliant Scholar
Linguistic Similarities: The Aramaic/Hebrew Connection
Language Similarities
The Prologue (Introduction)
B. The language in the Seventh Surah
Ancient Wisdom Leads to Aram
Aramaic, Arabic, and Hebrew
The Kaddish and Arabic Similarities
The Kaddish Prayer: First Paragraph
Praise And Criticism in The Qur’An
Jews and Christians Alike in the Eyes of Mohammad
The Biblical Concept of Forgiveness by God
Credit to All the Believers of All Faiths
The Ten Plagues
The Story of the Burning Bush
Major Criticism of the People of the Book
Mohammad and Christianity
The Concept of the Son of God in Islam
Mohammad’s Reverence of Christianity
The Controversy over the Son of God
Crucifixion, Was It an Act of God or an Act of Man?
Questions to Be Asked on Jesus
Mohammad and Jesus
Mohammad: “The Jews did not kill Christ”
Jesus’s Death, Mohammad, and the Book of Deuteronomy
The Qur’An and the Midrash
Did the Midrash Inspire the Qur’An?
Bible Facts and Qur’Anic Commentary V
Conclusion on Bible Facts and Qur’Anic Commentaries
Survival of Monotheism in Pre-Islamic Era
Survival of Pre-Islamic Beliefs
The Hebrews Struggle to Save Monotheism
The First Millennium and the Pursuit of Monotheism
The Talmud, a Weapon against Assimilation
The Jewish Inner Struggle
The Cultural Struggle and Revival
The Post-temple Survivors
Islam, a Product of the Surviving Judaism
Foreign Influence on the Hebrew Culture
When Hellenism Took Place
A New Way of Thinking: Hellenism
The Alexandria Connection
Philo of Alexandria
Bible Acceptance and Greek Reasoning
Philo through Josephus
Philo, Contemporary of Jesus
Philo, Christianity, and Islam
How Does Philo Fit In This Chapter?
From Allegory to Midrash
From Judeo-Greek to Pre-Islam
The Two Islams
Justice, Women, and the Disadvantaged
The Rights and Wrongs about Women
More Rights for Women Protection
The Right of a Woman to Remarry
Divorce (Even) before Consummation of Marriage
The Poor and the Wretched
It Is Forbidden to Live on Usury
Justice through Documentation
The Right of the Orphans
Justice through Prayer and Piety
Islam as a Way of Life
A Taste of Paradise
Fire for Those Who Deny the Resurrection
Satan
Dietary Laws
Dietary Laws and the People of the Book
The Easement of the Dietary Laws
Jesus’s Declaration on Dietary Laws
Mohammad’s Declaration on Dietary Laws
The Consumption of Alcohol and Its Boundaries
Blood Consumption
The Three Degrees of Permissiveness
Intermarriage Allowed under Certain Conditions
Hygiene before Prayer
Honoring Parents
Purity in Family Relationship
Comparing Bible and Qur’An on Incest
The Sunnah and the Five Pillars of Islam
The Structure of the Moslem Prayer
Prayers Divided into Rakat
The Voicing in the Moslem Prayers
Exceptions Made for Fasting
Moslem Holidays
Islamic Influences on the Jewish Prayer
The Hasidic Movement and the Sufi Influence
Old Jewish Customs Kept by the Moslems
Abraham and the Washing of the Feet
Maimonides, Saadiah, and Prayer Habits
King Solomon’s Prayer
Moslem Kneeling and the Ritual of Yom Kippur
The Traditional Sufism and Judaism
Prayer in the Direction of Jerusalem and Makkah
Conclusion
Be Charitable and Do Not Forget the Pilgrimage
Piety and Fear of God
Submit to Allah
The People of the Book and the People of the Qur’An
Do Not Neglect Parents, Orphans, Poor, and Destitute
Fighting in the Sacred Month
About Drinking, Gambling, and Pagan Women
Women’s Limited Right of Privacy
Do Not Swear Falsely
Marriage and Divorce
Men Have a Status above Women
The Right of Widows
Do Not Forget to Pray and in a Timely Manner
Contribute for War in the Name of Allah
Final Conclusion on the Holy Qur’An
Final Comment
Bibliography
Index
P. 1
The Qur'an and Biblical Origins

The Qur'an and Biblical Origins

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Categories:Books, Religion, Islam
Publish date: Apr 1, 2009
Added to Scribd: Oct 04, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9781450080217
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