20/4/05 Modified 18/5/08 Reformatted 25/5/09. Plus additional Figure for submission to
. N. P.
The Relevance to Metallomics of the Binding of Metal Ions to Heparin/Heparan Sulphate.
Heparin may provide a high capacity multi-element binding matrix of especial relevance to biological metallomicresearch.
The heparanome and metallome are suggested to interact and modulate the activity of a range of biological processes in animals
(A hypothesis compiled from research carried out at Marischal College, University of Aberdeen*re-copied in modified form from a note written 4/2/05)
It is suggested that the heparanome and the metallome cross react
Heparins (and putatively heparan sulphates) like alginates, unless specially purified, are apparentlychemically so constituted to as to retain the full range of multi-inorganic elements which occur inseawater.Of especial interest is the putative requirement for Ca
and possibly also Mn
ions for thelinkage of heparan sulphate anionic patterns to target proteins and the requirements for Cu
ions for the nitrosative generation of heparan sulphate oligosaccharides required for inter- and intra-cellular signalling.
The metallome, a scientific field which was originally suggested by R.J.P. Williams (
. 1) butlater redefined by H. Haraguchi (2) to emphasize the inter-relationships between the multielement profilesof biological and geological matrices,
., between seawater and human blood serum.Human hair and nails (
. 3) it should be noted, are also common examples of apparent Haraguchi-multi-element-matrices.It should be noted that while it is commonly assumed (
. as in the recent review of metallomics byMounicou
. (1)) that the biological relevance of metallomics is restricted entirely to the provision of theessential metal ions required for the generation of active sites in metallo-proteins, it can rationally besuggested that the concept of the metallome could also be of value to enable a fuller understanding of mechanisms by which polysaccharides interact with other types of bio-molecules. This could especially