Moody’s Economy.com • www.economy.com • firstname.lastname@example.org • January 2008
Assessing the Macro Economic Impact of Fiscal Stimulus 2008
he president and Congress arequickly coalescing around afiscal stimulus plan to shoreup the flagging economy. As currently envisioned, the plan is expected to costat least $150 billion and include a sizabletax rebate, short-term tax incentives for business investment, and temporary increases in unemployment insurance benefits and food stamps. This stimulus will not prevent a recession if one isalready on its way, as its benefits will not be realized until summer; however, itcould substantially mitigate the severity of any downturn. Under reasonableassumptions, the stimulus will add 1½percentage points to annualized realGDP growth during the second half of 2008. Employment will grow by an extra700,000 jobs, and the unemployment rate will be as much as a half percentage pointlower by mid-2009 than would be thecase without Washington's help.
With a presidentialelection fast approaching, policymakershave come to a quick consensus regarding the risks of recession and the need for fiscal stimulus. The economy is indeedstruggling. Real GDP likely grew near 1%in the fourth quarter of 2007, and theeconomy appears to be contracting inearly 2008. The job market has stalled,Christmas sales were soft, and industrialproduction has gone flat. The threat of recession is evidentin the recent substantial increase inunemployment. The jobless rate hasrisen 0.6 percentage points from its4.4% cyclical low last March to 5%in December. Recessions are alwayspreceded by such a rise, and one hasnever occurred without a recessionensuing (see Chart 1). Unemployment istypically the catalyst for a recession spiral because increased joblessness underminesconsumer confidence and thus consumer spending. Businesses respond to flagging sales by cutting back investment andpayrolls, and unemployment rises further. A negative, self-reinforcing cycle begins. A number of large state economiesare likely already in recession, including Arizona, California, Florida, Michiganand Nevada.
These states account for afourth of national GDP. Alaska, Arkansas,Connecticut, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio,Rhode Island, Vermont and Virginiaare on the edge of recession. Thesestates account for an additional 15%of national GDP. The large metro areaeconomies of the Northeast from Bostonto Washington, D.C. are still expanding, but growth is slowing sharply, particularly around New York City, which is being hurt by Wall Street’s travails. If theseeconomies begin to contract, a nationalrecession will have begun (see Chart 2). The need for fiscal stimulus isreinforced by the possibility thatmonetary policy has become less
Regional economies are determined by Moody’s Economy.com to be in recession using a methodology similar to thatdeveloped by the National Bureau of Economic Researchfor gauging national recessions. Payroll employment andindustrial production are the two principal indicators of persistent, broad-based decline in economic activity. A list of metro areas in or near recession is available on request.
Chart 1: Rising Unemployment Signal Recession
Year-over-year % change in unemployment
-30-20-100102030405060708069 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 07
Chart 2: State Economies in or Near Recession
In recessionNear recessionExpansion