19.Public policy – Choice that government makes in response to a policy issue.Policy is a course of action taken with regard to some problem.20.Representation – Relationship between the few leaders and many followers21.Single-issue groups: Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislikecompromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics.22.Traditional democratic theory – Theory about how a democratic governmentmakes its decisions. Cornerstones are equality in voting, effective participation,enlightened understanding, final control over the agenda, and inclusion.Chapter 2:1.Anti-federalists – Opponents of the American Constitution.2.Articles of Confederation – first Constitution of the U.S. adopted by Congress in1777, enacted in 1781. Established a national legislature, the ContinentalCongress, but most authority rest with state legislatures.3.Bill of Rights – First 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, drafted in responseto some of the Anti-Federalist concerns. Define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, and press and guarantee defendants’ rights.4.Checks & Balances – features of Constitution limiting government’s power byrequiring power to be balanced among different governmental institutions.Institutions check each others activities.5.Connecticut Compromise – compromise reached at Constitutional Conventionthat established two houses of Congress: House of Representatives (based on population) and Senate (each state has only two representatives).6.Consent of the governed – idea that government derives its authority by sanctionof the people.7.Constitution – nation’s basic law. Creates political institutions, assigns or divides power in government, and provides certain guarantees to citizens. Written or unwritten.8.Declaration of Independence – document approved by representatives of American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the Britishmonarch and declared their independence.9.Factions – interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that James Madison attacked in Federalist Paper #16.10.
– collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, JohnJay and James Madison under penname “Publius” to defend Constitution.11.Federalists – supporters of the U.S. Constitution.12.Judicial review – power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress, and by implication the executive, are in accord with the U.S. Constitution.Established by John Marshall in
Marbury v. Madison
.13.Limited government – idea that certain restrictions should be placed ongovernment to protect the natural rights of citizens.14.
Marbury v. Madison
– 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and hisassociates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaningof the U.S. Constitution.