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AP Government Midterm Review

AP Government Midterm Review



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Published by dstaples7
A midterm review for the CollegeBoard's AP Government & Politics course. This review can also be used as a partial review for the Advanced Placement Government & Politics Exam for AP students currently in the CollegeBoard's AP Program. Up to date as of 2008.
A midterm review for the CollegeBoard's AP Government & Politics course. This review can also be used as a partial review for the Advanced Placement Government & Politics Exam for AP students currently in the CollegeBoard's AP Program. Up to date as of 2008.

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Published by: dstaples7 on Jul 09, 2008
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AP Government Midterm Review
Terms Chapter 1:1.Democracy – A system of selecting policy makers and of organizing governmentso that policy represents and responds to the public’s preferences.2.Elite & class theory – Theory of government and politics contending that societiesare divided along class lines and that upper-class elite will rule, regardless of theformal niceties of governmental organization.3.Government – The institutions and processes through which public policies aremade for a society.4.Hyperpluralism – Theory of government and politics contending that groups areso strong that government is weakened. Extreme, exaggerated, and perverse formof pluralism.5.Individualism – Belief that individuals should be left on their own by thegovernment. Prominence of this belief in America is one reason for thecomparatively small scope of American government.6.Linkage institutions – Channels through which issues and people’s policy preferences get on the governments policy agenda.7.Majority rule – Fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory; choosingamong alternatives requires that majority’s desire be respected.8.Minority rights – Guarantees rights to those who do not belong to majorities andallows that they might join majorities through persuasion and reasoned argument.9.Pluralist theory – Politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies10.Policy agenda – John Kingdon: “the list of subjects or problems to whichgovernment officials, and people outside of government closely associated withthose officials, are paying some serious attention at any given time.”11.Policy gridlock – Condition that occurs when no coalition is strong enough toform a majority and establish policy. Nothing may get done.12.Policy impacts – Effects of a policy on people and problems.13.Policymaking institutions – Branches of government charge weth taking action on political issues. Congress, presidency, courts and bureaucracy.14.Policymaking system – Process by which political problems are communicated bythe voters and acted upon by government policymakers. Begins with people’sneeds and expectations for governmental action.15.Political issue – An issue that arises when people disagree about a problem and a public policy choice.16.Political participation – All the activities used by citizens to influence theselection of political leaders or the policies they pursue. Voting, protest and civildisobedience.17.Politics – Harold Lasswell: “who gets what, when, and how.”18.Public goods – Goods, such as clean air and clean water, that everyone mustshare.
19.Public policy – Choice that government makes in response to a policy issue.Policy is a course of action taken with regard to some problem.20.Representation – Relationship between the few leaders and many followers21.Single-issue groups: Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislikecompromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics.22.Traditional democratic theory – Theory about how a democratic governmentmakes its decisions. Cornerstones are equality in voting, effective participation,enlightened understanding, final control over the agenda, and inclusion.Chapter 2:1.Anti-federalists – Opponents of the American Constitution.2.Articles of Confederation – first Constitution of the U.S. adopted by Congress in1777, enacted in 1781. Established a national legislature, the ContinentalCongress, but most authority rest with state legislatures.3.Bill of Rights – First 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, drafted in responseto some of the Anti-Federalist concerns. Define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, and press and guarantee defendants’ rights.4.Checks & Balances – features of Constitution limiting government’s power byrequiring power to be balanced among different governmental institutions.Institutions check each others activities.5.Connecticut Compromise – compromise reached at Constitutional Conventionthat established two houses of Congress: House of Representatives (based on population) and Senate (each state has only two representatives).6.Consent of the governed – idea that government derives its authority by sanctionof the people.7.Constitution – nations basic law. Creates political institutions, assigns or divides power in government, and provides certain guarantees to citizens. Written or unwritten.8.Declaration of Independence – document approved by representatives of American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the Britishmonarch and declared their independence.9.Factions – interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property owealth that James Madison attacked in Federalist Paper #16.10.
 Federalist Papers
– collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, JohnJay and James Madison under penname “Publius” to defend Constitution.11.Federalists – supporters of the U.S. Constitution.12.Judicial review – power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress, and by implication the executive, are in accord with the U.S. Constitution.Established by John Marshall in
Marbury v. Madison
.13.Limited government – idea that certain restrictions should be placed ongovernment to protect the natural rights of citizens.14.
Marbury v. Madison
– 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and hisassociates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaningof the U.S. Constitution.
15.Natural Rights – rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments,which include life, liberty and property.16.New Jersey Plan – proposal at Constitutional Convention calling for equalrepresentation of each state in Congress regardless of state’s population.17.Republic – government in which people select representatives to govern them andmake laws.18.Separation of powers – Power of government is shared between executive,legislative, and judicial branches; each is relatively independent of the others.19.US Constitution – document written in 1787 - ratified in 1788 - that sets for theinstitutional structure of U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform.Replaced Article of Confederation.20.Virginia Plan – proposal at Constitutional Convention calling for representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state’s share of the U.S. population.21.Writ of habeas corpus – court order requiring jailer to explain to a judge why theyare holding a prisoner in custody.Chapter 3:1.Block grants – Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community developmentand social services.2.Categorical grants – Federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes, or “categories,” of state and local spending. They come with strings attached, likenondiscrimination provisions.3.Cooperative federalism – System of government in which powers and policyassignments are shared between states and the national government. Share costs,administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.4.Dual federalism – System of government in which both the states and the nationalgovernment remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies. Layered cake.5.Elastic clause – Authorizes Congress to pass all laws “necessary and proper” tocarry out the enumerated powers.6.Enumerated powers – Powers of the federal government that are specificallyaddressed din the Constitution; for Congress, these include the power to coinmoney, regulate its value, and impose taxes.7.Extradition – Legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the official of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged tohave been committed.8.Federalism – Way of organizing a nation so that two levels of government haveformal authority over the same land and people. It is a system of shared power  between unites of government.9.Fiscal federalism – Pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federalsystem it is the cornerstone of the national government’s relations with state andlocal government.10.Formula grants – Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formulaspecified in legislation or administrative regulations.

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