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Mathematical Models

Deterministic models

Nondeterministic models

Sets

Basic deﬁnitions

Set operations

Set identities

Proving statements about sets

A proof of the distributive law for sets

Elementary sets

Cardinality of sets

Sample spaces and events

Sets of events

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 1

Questions for Chapter 1

ENUMERATION

Fundamental Rule

Permutation of n items distinguished by groups

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 2

Questions for Chapter 2

PROBABILITY

Probability Spaces

Measuring sets

Interpretation of probability

Examples using logical probability

Relationships between English and set notation

Deductions from the axioms

THE BIRTHDAY PROBLEM

The birthday problem on the planet Yak

Conditional Probability and Independence

Conditional probability

Independence

Bayes’ theorem

Independence of more than two events

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 3

Questions for Chapter 3

Cumulative Distribution Function

Properties of any cumulative distribution function

Discrete Random Variables

Properties of any probability mass function

Examples of discrete distributions

Properties of any probability density function

Differential mass interpretation of the pdf

Examples of continuous distributions

Expectation

Finding E(X) for some speciﬁc distributions

Binomial distribution

Poisson distribution

Geometric distribution

Exponential distribution

Other measures of central tendency

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 4

Questions for Chapter 4

Some examples

Discrete case

Continuous case

Invertible Functions of Continuous Random Variables

Expected values for functions of random variables

The kth Moment of X

Variance

Approximating E(h(X)) and Var(h(X))

Chebychev’s Inequality

The Law of Large Numbers

The Normal Distribution

Tools for using the standard normal tables

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 5

Questions for Chapter 5

Deﬁnition

Joint Distributions

Discrete Distributions

Marginal Distributions

Functions of Random Vectors

Independence of Random Variables

Testing for independence

Expectation and random vectors

Random vectors and conditional probability

Conditional distributions

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 6

Questions for Chapter 6

Transforms

Notation

Probability generating functions

Moment generating functions

Other transforms of random variables

Linear combinations of normal random variables

The distribution of the sample mean

The Central Limit Theorem

The DeMoivre-Laplace Theorem

The distribution of the sample mean for large n

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 7

Questions for Chapter 7

Basic Concepts

Random samples

Statistics

Point Estimation

The problem

Unbiased estimators

Finding Estimators

Method of maximum likelihood

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 8

Questions for Chapter 8

Coin Tossing (Binary) Models

The binomial distribution

The geometric distribution

The Poisson distribution

Random Particle Models

Self-Test Exercises for Chapter 9

Questions for Chapter 9

Approximation for the Normal Integral

Approximation for the Inverse Normal Integral

Questions for Chapter 10

TABLE I: STANDARD NORMAL CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

TABLE II: SOME COMMON PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

ANSWERS TO SELF-TEST EXERCISES

SAMPLE EXAMINATION 1

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

PART II

SAMPLE EXAMINATION 2

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