concerning their wants and needs to be applied in their work. These bargainingstrategies are extremely helpful especially in the organizational setting; as suchdiscussions can lead to the overall improvement of the industrial relations regulationsand policies. However, at the same time, these negotiations may also bedisadvantageous when used in the inappropriate setting, especially when it has thepotential to become a major battle between the parties, with several groups of peoplebeing directly and indirectly affected by their conflicts ( 1998).On this paper, the evaluation of the structures of collective bargaining amongfour (4) countries namely United States of America (USA), United Kingdom of GreatBritain (UK), Germany, and Japan supports the argument that collective bargainingsystems affects the nature of industrial relations. Collective bargaining mechanisms areidentified to be an important determinant of national economic capabilities andconditions in relation to international industrial relations regulations as well as theorganizational or corporate initiatives. The succeeding discussion presents an overviewof the structure of collective bargaining of the countries mentioned. All facts aregathered from an assortment of literatures that directly and indirectly tackles the subjectmatter. also, they are properly acknowledge.
United States of America
The collective bargaining efforts of private sector in US are covered by theprinciples of the National Labor Relations Act. It is often characterized as decentralizedin nature ( 1993). and (1979) reported that American collective bargainingstructure serves as the primary solution in protecting the interests of the labor group.For instance, American unions depend on collective bargaining particularly when itcomes to the advancement the welfare of their members. To quote and (1979), “
Thestrength of American collective bargaining lies to a great extent in the fact that, becausemost contracts involve only one employer or even one plant, collective agreements tend to be very specific about a wide range of issues
”. and (1988 cited in 1991) added thatinformation sharing was also associated with the increasing bargaining powers of union.
(1993) and and (1992) reported that UK’s collective bargaining structure isdecentralized as similar to USA. It started in the 1960s and eventually accelerated in the