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Lab4B Guide

Lab4B Guide

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Published by: kostas.sierros9374 on Oct 05, 2010
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MAE244 OPTICAL Methods of Stress Analysis - Photoelasticity Lab 4-B
Experimental Procedures -- Photoelastic Stress Analysis
Introduction
Strain gages allow very accurate measurements of strain. A major limitation of strain gagesis, however, the fact that they measure only local strain, at specific locations where the straingages are bonded. In many applications, the strain/stress field has to be determined over theentire structure, or over a designated region of the structure. Such information is oftenessential for preliminary design studies, since it permits the engineer to identify problemareas, and specific regions of high localized stress concentrations. Optical techniques, such as photoelasticity, provide a means to obtain
full-field
stress distributions.
Objective
The primary goal of this experiment is to learn and implement the basic principles and procedures of photoelasticity. It will demonstrate the ability of photoelasticity to depictvisually stress distributions over significantly large areas of a test specimen. The technique isapplied also to illustrate the experimental analysis of stress concentrations in a notchedtensile specimen.
Equipment
Circular polariscopes equipped with white light source and monochromator.
Two different types of photoelasticity specimens, for different types of loading: semi-circular notch specimen under tension for stress concentration determination and beam specimenunder four-point bending for flexural bending stress evaluation.
Procedures1. A semi-circular
n
otched specimen in tension (Dark-field, P
A)
1)Study and comprehend the setup of a circular polariscope and the functions of eachelement.
2)
Measure and record the dimensions of the
semi-circular notch specimen
. Place thetest specimen in the loading fixture of the polariscope.
3)Set the analyzer at an orientation of 90
°
and set the polarizer at an angle of 0
°
, togenerate "
Dark field", integer-order
fringes
(N=0, 1, 2,3…..)
.
4)
Load the specimen first to
80 lbs
(20 lb × 4.25) and carefully observe the formation of fringes in white light. Follow carefully the pattern of each fringe and observe itsmovement.5)Measure the distance from the edge of the notch to the center of the black fringe (if themonochromatic filter is used); In the absence of the monochromatic filter, measure thedistance from the edge of the notch to the center of the red and blue tint of passage.6)Based on the recorded digital images, determine both the half and whole (integer) ordefringes, at the notched section of the specimen (section of minimum area). Extrapolatethe fringe distributions to the outer boundary of the specimen, in order to estimate themaximum fringe order (and thus the maximum stress) in that region.7)Determine the stress concentration factor 
8)
Increased the applied load to
160 lbs
and repeat steps 5 and 6.
1
 
MAE244 OPTICAL Methods of Stress Analysis - Photoelasticity Lab 4-B2.Four-point Beam bending test (bright-field, P//A)
1)Measure and record all the relevant dimensions of the beam.
2)
Record the positions of the load application points in the four-point-bend fixture anddraw the shear and moment diagrams.
3)
Set-up the polariscope with
bright-field
mode to observe whole order fringes (
N=±0.5,
 
±1.5, ±2.5…. 
 
)
 
. Check the setting to verify that the polarizer is set, indeed, at 0
°
while theanalyzer is also set at 0
°
.
4)
Mount the beam in the center of the loading fixture and load it in small steps, up to themaximum load of 20lb (Note: the upper loading beam weighs 2.5 lb, please reset the loadingsensor to 2.5 lb prior to loading). Note the positions, characteristics, and formation of thefringes during the loading process: the first fringe will appear on the top and the bottom of the beam. Subsequently, it will move towards the beam center as the load is increased.5)At maximum load, measure the positions of all the fringes from the center of the beam.This includes fringes in both the positive and the negative directions from the neutral axis(fringes in the top and bottom of the beam, respectively).
Report1.Semi-circular notched specimen
a. Calculate the
σ  
max
by utilizing the fringe-patterns, and then calculate the experimental
stressconcentration factor,
tn
 b. Calculate the theoretical stress concentration factor,
 K 
tn
,c.Compare the experimental stress concentration factor (calculated in “a”) with the theoreticalstress concentration factor calculated in question "b".
Comment on the accuracy of  predicting stress concentration using the photoelastic technique.
2.Beam-bending specimen
a.Calculate the experimental stress value corresponding to each fringe. b.For each fringe location, as measured by its distance from the center of the beam, calculatethe theoretical bending stress, by using the beam bending equation and the section moment(resultant moment) from the bending moment diagram.c.Tabulate the fringe constant, the distance from the beam center, the theoretical bending stressand the experimental stress values for the corresponding fringe orders. Compare, in terms of % difference, the theoretical bending stress and the corresponding stress value calculatedfrom the fringe order.
Comment of the accuracy of the photoelastic technique.
(
To be continued on next page
)
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