MAE244 OPTICAL Methods of Stress Analysis - Photoelasticity Lab 4-B
Experimental Procedures -- Photoelastic Stress Analysis
Strain gages allow very accurate measurements of strain. A major limitation of strain gagesis, however, the fact that they measure only local strain, at specific locations where the straingages are bonded. In many applications, the strain/stress field has to be determined over theentire structure, or over a designated region of the structure. Such information is oftenessential for preliminary design studies, since it permits the engineer to identify problemareas, and specific regions of high localized stress concentrations. Optical techniques, such as photoelasticity, provide a means to obtain
The primary goal of this experiment is to learn and implement the basic principles and procedures of photoelasticity. It will demonstrate the ability of photoelasticity to depictvisually stress distributions over significantly large areas of a test specimen. The technique isapplied also to illustrate the experimental analysis of stress concentrations in a notchedtensile specimen.
Circular polariscopes equipped with white light source and monochromator.
Two different types of photoelasticity specimens, for different types of loading: semi-circular notch specimen under tension for stress concentration determination and beam specimenunder four-point bending for flexural bending stress evaluation.
Procedures1. A semi-circular
otched specimen in tension (Dark-field, P
1)Study and comprehend the setup of a circular polariscope and the functions of eachelement.
Measure and record the dimensions of the
semi-circular notch specimen
. Place thetest specimen in the loading fixture of the polariscope.
3)Set the analyzer at an orientation of 90
and set the polarizer at an angle of 0
, togenerate "
Dark field", integer-order
(N=0, 1, 2,3…..)
Load the specimen first to
(20 lb × 4.25) and carefully observe the formation of fringes in white light. Follow carefully the pattern of each fringe and observe itsmovement.5)Measure the distance from the edge of the notch to the center of the black fringe (if themonochromatic filter is used); In the absence of the monochromatic filter, measure thedistance from the edge of the notch to the center of the red and blue tint of passage.6)Based on the recorded digital images, determine both the half and whole (integer) order fringes, at the notched section of the specimen (section of minimum area). Extrapolatethe fringe distributions to the outer boundary of the specimen, in order to estimate themaximum fringe order (and thus the maximum stress) in that region.7)Determine the stress concentration factor
Increased the applied load to
and repeat steps 5 and 6.