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= (P x J) Wb
= JP/60/N V
= JPN/60 V
It is the voltage induced per conductor. But there are Z
= JZNP/60 V
In D.C. armature winding the closed type winding is done so
E = JZNP/60a V
Parts of a DC Machine: The parts of D.C. generator can be
The parts of D.C. generator which remains stationary during
The parts of D.C. generators which rotates during the working
(a) Eye bolt: It is a stationary part and fixed on the top of
(b) Body or yoke: It is the outer frames of the machine. It
(3) Poles: The main magnetic field is produced by the poles
(4) Brushes and brush gears: The main function of brushes is
(5) Bearings: The bearings are fitted in the cover, so as to
(1) Armature: The armature rotates in the magnetic field
(2) Commutator: It is made of the hard drawn copper
12.3. It is round in shape to facilitate the collection of current
(3) Fan and shaft: a fan is mounted over the shaft in
The various power stages in case of a D.C. generator are
Copper losses = B - C
Losses in DC Generator: The losses in d.c. machines may be
1. Variable losses are proportional to the square of the
2. Constant losses are assumed to be constant over the
(i) Armature losses: thee losses are of two types:
(ii) Commutator losses: Commutator losses occur due to
(iii) Excitation losses: These include the loss in a shunt
2. The field switch SB2 is closed whereupon the voltage
5. To shift the load from A to B it is merely necessary to
Now let us designate generator A and generator B as generator
South Pole. Also the armature conductors of the
Back EMF: In a D.C. motor when the armature rotates, the
Parts of DC generator: The basic essential parts of a DC
Types of DC Generator: When the field coils are excited by
(i) Series Wound Generator: Fig. shows a series excited
(a) Short shunt. In which the shunt coils are connected in-
(b) Long shunt. When the shunt coils are connected
Armature Reaction: The armature reaction is basically the
According to Fleming¶s right hand ruler the conductors under
Necessity of a starter: When the motor is at rest the speed of
4-Point Starter: The three point starter cannot be used to
Types of DC motors: A dc motor must receive their
1. Series Wound Motor: A series motor is one in which
Power drawn from supply mains = VI watts
2. Shunt Wound Motor: A shunt wound motor is one in
Power input = VIL
All conductors under the North Pole carry inward-flowing
1. Shunt motors: The characteristics of a shunt motor
2. Series motors: It is variable speed motors i.e. speed is
3. Compound motors: Differential compound motors are
Commutation: Commutation means the process of current
I. Flux Control Method: In this method, the flux
(i) Field Diverters: In this method, a variable resistance
(ii) Armature Diverter: In order to obtain speeds below
(iii) Tapped Field Control: In this method, the flux is
1. Primary Cell: The basic working principle of cell is
2. Secondary Cell: Secondary cells work on the same
In many respects the Nickel/Iron battery was almost ''too
Purpose of inter-poles: These are the poles mounded in
Ward Leonard System: This method of control not only gives
M¶ = driving motor ± a constant speed motor which drives G
When Ilgner system is driven by means of an AC motor
This is absolutely required by Kirchhoff¶s voltage law
DC generators:
Direct method: In direct test the generator or motor is put on
Indirect method: This method consists in measuring the losses
Regenerative method: This method requires two identical
Hopkinson test. The connection diagram for the Hopkinson test
Motor output power = P1 - P11
Charging of battery: For charging a battery a d.c. supply of
2H2SO4
Discharging of Battery: When the cell is fully charged the
Swinburne's test: This is an indirect method of determining
Dynamometer test: The dyno must be able to operate at any
Torque is in newton-metres (N·m)
Dry Cell: It is a portable cell. Dry cell is a modification of
Lachlanche cell. In this cell the electrolyte in the paste shape. It
NH3 gas. Figure shows the simple construction of the dry cell
3-Point DC Motor Starter: The starter shown in Fig. is of
Consider a charged lead acid cell with anode of PbO2 and
At anode: On reaching the anode, each hydrogen ion takes one
PbO2 and cathode into Pb. The H2SO4 produced in the
Nickel Cadmium Battery: Active material used for positive
And at Cathode: Cd + 2OH Cd (OH)2
At Cathode: Cd (OH)2 + 2K Cd + 2KOH
Shaft Torque: The torque developed by the armature is the
The difference Ta - Tsh is known as lost torque (i.e. torque lost
J = 0.06 wb
J ZN
E × 60 × A
J = 0.016 wb
J = 30 mwb
JZN
L = 10 m
L = ?
L = 75 mH
V = 220 volts
Qc = 92.45%
144 × 2 × 900 × 16
J = 0.0173611 wb
V = 230 volts
Voltage drop in series winding = 50 × 0.03 = 1.5 V
Shunt Cu loss = V. Ish = 200 × 4 = 800 Watt
Qc = 83.717%
V = 200 Volt
@ Voltage at terminal = Voltage at load + Feeder
V = 220 V
(iii) B.H.P. of engine = ?
@ Vb = 220 + 2
Voltage drop in armature = IaRa
@ E.m.f. generated = Vb + Va
@ Copper losses = b ± c
@ Total losses = Current loss + Iron loss
0.02 I1 ± 0.02 I2 = 10
V + 30 + 0.0004 V = 560
V + 0.0004 V = 560 ± 30
V = 529.78
V = 530 Volt (approx.)
Bus-bar voltage = V = 530 Volt Ans
V × I1
@ Ia = I + Ish
@ E.m.f. generates = Vb + Va
V = 100 volts
V = 250 volts
Shunt Cu loss = V. Ish = 250 × 5 = 1250 watt
V = 230 V
0 of .
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Dc Machine

# Dc Machine

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07/09/2013

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