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Field Problems of Fruit Crops

Field Problems of Fruit Crops

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Published by Anurag_Bhatnag_2337

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Published by: Anurag_Bhatnag_2337 on Oct 06, 2010
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02/02/2013

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DISEASESCITRUSCITRUS CANKER 
 Xanthomonas campestris pv. Citri 
Canker is one of the most devastating disease of citrus. It assumes serious proportionsafter the rainy season.
Symptoms :
 The disease affects all the above ground parts of the plant. On leaves the canker appears as circular water-soaked yellowish spots, which gradually enlarge to 3-4 mm,turn rough, corky, brownish, raised on both the sides of the leaf, and are surrounded byyellow halo (Pic. 1). The spots on the twigs are more prominent as irregular and corky brown. Lesions. The lesions may coalesce to from large necrotic areas which lead todrying of twigs. The fruit lesions become rough and corky, sometimes resulting in tocracks in the skin (Pic. 2). These are confined only to the rind. Portion.Canker is severe on kaghzi lime, lemons, grapefruits, sour orange and citranges. Sweetorange, Baramasi lemon-1 and mandarins are less susceptible.
Conditions for disease development :
 High humidity, well distributed rainfall and temperature from 20-35° C provideoptimum conditions for disease development. The bacterium enters the tissue throughstomata or through wounds. Affected leaves and twigs bearing old lesions serve as sourceof inoculum. Plant to plant spread is mainly by splashing rains and long distance spread isthrough infected plant material.
Control :
1Do not use infected nursery plants and also destroy the infected Jatti Khatti plants.2Prune and burn the infected parts of the trees during May-June. Disinfect the cutends with Bordeaux paste.3Give three sprays of 50 gm of Streptocycline + 25 gm copper sulphate in 500litres of water/acre, one each during the month of October, December andFebruary. Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) or copper oxy-chloride 50 WP (0.3%) canalso be sprayed. Also spray the nursery plants with the above chemicals particularly during July-August.
SCAB
 Elsinoe fawceti 
Scab becomes serious on many commercial citrus cultivars during periods of highhumidity and rainy season.
Symptoms :
Leaves, twigs and fruits are attacked. On young leaves, lesions start as small paleorange elevated spots, becoming sharply defined. With the hardening of the leaf the
 
lesions become rough, corky and wart-like and are brown to dark brown in colour (Pic.3). These may be single or irregularly grouped and are raised, thorny on the underside of the leaf. Affected leaves become distorted, wrinkled, stunted and mis-shapen. On twigs,lesions arise as small slightly raised warts with almost similar appearance as on theleaves. The lesions on fruits are corky having projections which become brittle and break into incrustations.Scab can be distinguished from canker in the following ways :1.Canker spots are typically circular, bigger and on the leaves these are surrounded by a yellow halo.2.Canker lesions are not thorny on the lower surface of the leaf.3.Canker infected leaves are not distorted.Sour orange, lemons, grapefruits, some mandarins including kinnow are susceptible.Sweet oranges and limes are, however, less susceptible.
Conditions for disease development :
When surface is wet and the temperature is around 16-23°C the fungus can readilyinvade the young leaves, tender twigs and developing fruits to establish infection.
Control :
1.Do not use infected nursery plants.2.Prune and burn the infected leaves and twigs. Destroy the infected and fallenfruits.3.Give three sprays with Ziram 27 SC (0.25%) or Dithane M-45 (0.25%) or Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) or copper oxychloride 50 WP (0.3%) startingfrom last week of June to August at 15 days interval.
FOOT ROT/GUMMOSIS
 Phytophthora parasitica
 
Gummosis (foot rot) is a serious problem in kinnow orchards in Hoshiarpur andAbohar areas. The disease is more common in heavy, ill drained and high water tablesoils.
Symptoms :
The first indication of infection is the appearance of gum drops on the bark surface of the trunk usually below or just above the bud-union. Infected bark and wood below it becomes brown to dark brown. The bark develops vertical cracks. The infection spreadsrapidly to the upper trunk (Pic. 4.). When gumming starts close to the soil, the diseasespreads on the main roots and there is girdling of the base of the trunk as a result of whichthe tree starts declining. Prior to death the tree usually blossoms heavily and dies beforethe fruit matures.
Conditions for disease development :
Heavy soils, excessive irrigation or flood irrigation, low budding, burying of the bud-union inside the soil or deep planting, piling up of the soil around the collar region,injuries to crown roots or base of the stem during orchard operations often predispose the
 
trees to foot rot. Maximum disease occurs when the temperature is around 25-28°C.
Control :
1.Use resistant/tolerant rootstocks and bud union should be above the soil level;2.Avoid injuries to the trunk and crowns roots. Don’t pile soil around the trunk and provide proper drainage conditions.3.When infection is detected decorticate the infected bark along with some healthy part and disinfect the wounds with disinfectant solution on the trunk and cover them with Bordeaux paste. After about a week when the paste has dried up, applyBordeaux paint to these wounds. Alternatively apply Ridomil MZ 75 WP @ 2 gm per 100 ml of linseed oil to the infected portion twice, in February-March andJuly-August. Drench the soil around the tree base with 25 gm Ridomil MZ in 10litres of water per tree during February-March and repeat in July-August.
DIE-BACK/ANTHRACNOSE
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
Die-back appears generally on weak trees in the neglected orchards throughout theState.
Symptoms :
The disease appears in several forms, including die-back of twigs, leaf-spotting (Pic.5) and rooting and dropping of fruits (Pic. 6). When twigs are attacked drying starts fromtip downwards producing typical die back symptoms. Numerous minute black fruiting bodies of the fungus appear on the dead twigs which appear silvery grey in colour. Onleaves faded green spots appear which turn brown and finally become grey in the centrewith brown margins. The grayish areas are embedded with numerous fruiting bodiesarranged in concentric rings. The fungus also attacks the fruit stalks. The stalks dry upand fruits rot from the stem end and drops off.Sweet oranges, mandarins especially kinnow, limes and grapefruits are highlysusceptible to this disease.
 Conditions for disease development :
 Neglected and poor management conditions of the orchards predispose citrus plants tothis malady. High humidity and temperature around 25°C are optimum for thedevelopment of the disease under field conditions.
Control :
1.In the affected orchards, the dead-wood should be pruned during February anddestroyed by burning to reduce the primary source of inoculum.2.Spray the plants with Bordeaux mixture (2:2:250) or copper oxy-chloride 50 WP(0.3 per cent) in March and again during July and September.
FRUIT DROP
Colletotrichum limetticola

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